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Peter H. Raven


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Section 1: Introduction to the urban environment

  1. Reinventing cities for people and the planet (Molly O'Meara, Worldwatch Paper 147, Jun. 1999)
  2. From traumatic transition to a reasonable urban future (Jorge Wilheim, The Challenges of Urban Governance, WWIC, Jun. 3, 1999)
  3. Part I-6: The urban environment (World Resources 1996-97, Executive Summary, Chapter 1-6)
  4. A survey of cities: Turn up the lights - the dark side (John Parker, The Economist, Part 5 of 8, Jul. 25, 1995)
  5. Urban and rural areas (Population Division, Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations,
  6. Urban and rural areas - 1996 - percentage of population living in urban areas in 1996 and 2030 (Population Division, Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations,
  7. Urban and rural areas: Urban population (billions) 1950-2030 (Population Division, Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations,
  8. Urban agglomerations 1996 - world's urban agglomerations with populations of 10 million or more inhabitants in 1996: 1970, 1996 and 2015 (Population Division, Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations
  9. Urban agglomerations 1996 - number of urban agglomerations with 1 million or more inhabitants: 1950 to 2015 (Population Division, Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations,
  10. Urban growth (WRI, World Resources 1998-99, p146-147)
  11. Urban and industrial environments (GEO-1, Chapter 2,
  12. Megacities: Sweet dreams or environmental nightmares? (Walter R. Lynn, Proceedings of The American Chemical Society, v33 n11 p238, Jun. 1, 1999)
  13. Ecological footprints of the future (Dr. William Rees, People and The Planet,
  14. Towards healthy cities (David Satterthwaite, People and the Planet,
  15. How the cities grow (Robert Livernash and David Satterthwaite, People and the Planet,

Section II: Urban statistics/figures

  1. Data table 9.1: Urban indicators, 1980-2025 (World Resources 1998-99, p274-281)
  2. Urban Upgrading: Service Delivery to the Urban Poor (The World Bank Group, p1-6,

Section III: Health and urbanization

  1. Secondary cities in West Africa: The challenge for environmental health and prevention (May Yacoob and Margo Kelly, Woodrow Wilson International, Comparative Urban Studies, Occasional Paper Series, n21, 1999)

Section IV: Population and urban migration

  1. Urban violence in Sao Paulo, Brazil: Urbanization, population growth, and inequality (Nancy Cardia, The Woodrow Wilson Center, Jun. 3, 1999)
  2. Migration, urbanization, and social adjustment (Michael J. White, Policy Brief #1,, Feb. 1999)
  3. Population and urban sprawl (National Wildlife Federation, Fact sheet)
  4. Population, urbanization, environment, and security: A summary of the issues (Ellen Brennan, Woodrow Wilson International, Occasional Paper Series, Comparative Urban Studies, n22, 1999)
  5. Limits and constraints: Excerpts from the World Food Summit (Population Reports, v25 n4 p10,, Dec. 1997)
  6. Ecosystem appropriation by cities (Carl Folke et al., Ambio, v26 n3 p167-172, May 1997)

Section V: Urbanization and agriculture

  1. Population boom crowds croplands (International Wildlife, v26 n2 p31 (restricted access),, Mar./Apr. 1996)
  2. Urbanization and agriculture to the year 2020 (2020 Vision News and Views,, Apr. 1996)
  3. Time to help the city farmers of Africa (Diana Lee-Smith, People and the Planet,

Section VI: Water and urbanization

  1. Water supply, sanitation, and environmental sustainability - the financing challenge (Ismail Serageldin, The World Bank, Directions in Development, p1-35, 1994)
  2. Water for big cities: Big problems, easy solutions? (Peter Rogers et al., Policy Brief # 3, p1-5,, Feb. 1999)
  3. Should we pay for water? And if so, how? (John Kalbermatten, The World Bank Group, Urban Magazine,
  4. Bail out: The global privatization of water supply (Penelope J. Brook Cowen, The World Bank Group, Urban Magazine,
  5. Report 284: Effects of urbanization and land-use changes on low stream flow (Jack B. Evett,, Apr. 10, 1999)
  6. Sustainable watershed management at the rapidly growing urban fringe (T.H. Cahill et al.,

Section VII: Urban management/ planning

  1. Noah's mandate and the birth of urban bioplanning (Bruce Babbitt, Conservation Biology, v13 n3, Jun. 1999)
  2. What is smart growth? (Smart Growth Network, 123, Overview Page,
  3. Policies to improve the urban environment (Ariel Alexandre, in Our Cities Our Future, 1996)
  4. Participatory urban environmental management: The case of Ahmedabad, India (Dinesh Mehta, Woodrow Wilson International, Comparative Series Studies, Occasional Paper Series, n20, 1999)
  5. Urban governance: Lessons from best practices in Asia (Dinesh Mehta, UNDP Policy Document on Governance, 1997)
  6. The Habitat II conference: Moving slowly toward sustainable cities (Stephen Wheeler, Urban Ecologist,

Section VIII: Transportation/air pollution

  1. Seven megacities with the worst air pollution (World Health Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme,, 1992)
  2. Synopsis, Environmentally sustainable urbanization and transportation in China: The case for territorial development planning (Ambio, v28 n2 p198-203, Mar. 1999)
  3. Express solutions on Sunol: New transportation choices cut congestion (, Aug. 1999)

Section IX: Waste and urbanization

  1. Analyzing urban solid waste in developing countries: A perspective on Bangalore, India (Peter van Beukering et al., Working Paper No. 24, Mar. 1999)

Section X: Cases

  1. Shanghai's migrant millions (James Irwin, UNESCO Courier, n6 p32, Jun. 1999)
  2. Are megacities viable? (Exequiel Ezcurra and Marisa Mazari-Hiriart, Environment, v38 p6-8, Jan./Feb. 1996)
  3. Urbanization, roads, and rural population change in the Ecuadorian Andes (Thomas K. Rudel and Samuel Richards, Studies in Comparative International Development, v25 n3 p73, Fall 1990)
  4. Building green islands in Bombay (Charles Pye-Smith, People and the Planet,
  5. Brazil's urban laboratory takes the strain (Christina Cavalcanti, People and the Planet,

Section XI: Land use

  1. Border crossing (R. Arrowsmith, Science, v278 n5337 p375, Oct. 1997)
  2. Ecological principles and guidelines for managing the use of land (V. H. Dale et al., Ecological Society of America's Committee on Land Use, Version 28, Apr. 29, 1999)
  3. Chapter 10: Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources (Agenda 21, Progress Report, FAO,

Section XII: Urbanization and the future

  1. The city as ecosystem (Mary Parlange, BioScience, v48 n8 p581-585, Aug. 1998)

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[Background sources: population] [Background sources: wetlands]