Atlas Search:

AAAS > International




Peter H. Raven


Background sources

About the atlas
World map and   conversion tables


Flash version in EARTHscope

Order Print Copy





Section I: Oceans

  1. Open oceans (V.H. Heywood (ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment, p309, 1995)
  2. Oceans and ocean life factoids (
  3. Overview (GESAMP, The State of the Marine Environment, Chapter 6, p115, 1990)
  4. The oceans (Scientific American, v276, Mar. 97)
  5. A sea of troubles (Kieran Mulvaney, E Magazine, Jan./Feb. 1998)
  6. Danger at sea: Our changing ocean (Seaweb,
  7. Marine Mammal Mass Mortality Events (Seaweb,
  8. Marine ecosystem (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online)
  9. Chemistry and biology of the oceans (Uppenbrink et al., Science, v281 n5374 p189)
  10. Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production (Paul G. Falkowski et al., Science, v281 n5374 p200)
  11. Variability of inorganic and organic phosphorous turnover rates in the coastal ocean (Claudia R. Benitez et al., Nature, v398 p502-505, Apr. 8, 1999)
  12. Ironing out what controls primary production in the nutrient rich waters of the open ocean (Paul G. Falkowski, Global Change Biology, v1 p161-163, 1995)
  13. Widespread iron limitation of phytoplankton in the South Pacific Ocean (Michael J. Behrenfeld and Zbigniew S. Kolber, Science, v283 n5403 p840)
  14. Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components (Christopher B. Field et al., Science, v281 n5374 p237)
  15. The CO2 balance of unproductive aquatic ecosystems (Carlos M. Duarte et al., Science, v281 n5374 p234)
  16. An estimate of global ocean circulation and heat fluxes (Alison M. Macdonald and Susan Agusti, Nature, v382 n6590 p436-439, Aug. 1, 1996)
  17. Diel vertical migration in zooplankton (Stephen M. Bollens, Oceanus, p19, Fall/Winter 1995)
  18. Life in the ocean (James W. Nybakken et al., Scientific American, v276 p74, Mar. 1997)
  19. Estimating biodiversity (Andrew R. Solow, Oceanus, Fall/Winter, 1995)
  20. Understanding marine biodiversity (James T. Carlton and Cheryl Ann Butman, Oceanus, Fall/Winter 1995)
  21. Diversity in a vast and stable habitat (Laurence P. Madin and Katherine A.C. Madin, Oceanus, Fall/Winter 1995)
  22. The deep sea: Desert and rainforest (Paul V.R. Snelgrove and J. Frederick Grassle Madin, Oceanus, Fall/Winter 1995)
  23. Getting to the bottom of marine biodiversity: Sedimentary habitats (Paul V.R. Snelgrove, BioScience, v49 n2 p129, Feb. 1999)
  24. Antarctic benthic diversity (Nature, v368 , Mar. 1994)
  25. Marine mammal biodiversity (Robert L. Brownell, Jr. et al., Oceanus, Fall/Winter 1995)
  26. New insights on marine bacterial diversity (Paul V. Dunlap, Oceanus, Fall/Winter 1995)
  27. Marine species richness (Gary C.B. Poore and George D.F. Wilson, Nature, v361, Feb. 1993)
  28. Probing biodiversity (David A. Caron and Rebecca J. Gast, Oceanus, Fall/Winter 1995)

Section II: Oceans and human population

  1. Human activities affecting the sea (GESAMP, The State of the Marine Environment, Chapter 1 p9, 1990)
  2. Charting a new course for oceans (Anne Platt Mcginn, State of the World, Chapter 5 p78, 1999)
  3. Biological effects (GESAMP, The State of the Marine Environment, Chapter 3 p66, 1990)
  4. Extinction on the high seas (David Malakoff, Science, v277, Jul. 25, 1997)
  5. Deposits and withdrawals (Ocean Planet: Perils - Mining and Dumping,
  6. Climate change effects (GESAMP, The State of the Marine Environment, Chapter 4 p94, 1990)
  7. The oceans and weather (Peter J. Webster and Judith A. Curry, Scientific American, v276 p38, Mar. 1997)
  8. The rising sea (David Schneider, Scientific American, v276 p28-35, Mar. 1997)
  9. Oceans and climate (Michael S. McCartney, Oceanus, Fall/Winter 1996)
  10. As the oceans switch, climate shifts (Richard A. Kerr, Science, v281 n5374 p157)
  11. The enfant terrible of the sea (UNESCO Sources, n96, Dec. 1997)
  12. Warming's unpleasant surprise: Shivering in the greenhouse? (Richard A. Kerr, Science, v281 n5374 p156)
  13. Cometh the storm (The Economist, May 23, 1998)
  14. On the edge (The Economist, May 23, 1998)
  15. Grinding to a halt? (Stefan Rahmstorf, UNESCO Sources, n96, Dec. 1997)
  16. Global warming and marine carbon cycle feedbacks on future atmospheric CO2 (Fortunat Joos, Science, v284, Apr. 16, 1999)
  17. Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles' heel of our climate system: Will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? (Wallace S. Broecker, Science, v278 n5343 p1582)
  18. Twentieth century sea surface temperature trends (Mark A. Cane et al., Science, v275 n5302 p957)
  19. Marine ecosystem sensitivity to climate change (Raymond C. Smith et al., BioScience, v49 n5, May 1999)
  20. Impacts of global climate change - with emphasis on US coastal areas (1998 Year of the Ocean, p1-52,
  21. Simulated response of the ocean carbon cycle to anthropogenic climate warning (Jorge L. Sarmiento et al., Nature, v393 p245-249, May 21, 1998)
  22. Marine contaminants: Levels and distribution (GESAMP, The State of the Marine Environment, Chapter 2, p 41, 1990)
  23. Prevention and control of marine pollution (GESAMP, The State of the Marine Environment, Chapter 5 p101, 1990)
  24. Marine pollution (Martin R. Lee, Oceans and Coastal Resources: A Briefing Book,
  25. The ecology of the deep ocean and its relevance to global waste management (Martin V. Angel et al., Journal of Applied Ecology, v33 p915-926, 1996)
  26. Danger at sea: Our changing ocean - signs of trouble (Seaweb,
  27. A not so bottomless sea (Sophie Boukhari, UNESCO Sources, n96, Dec. 1997)
  28. Enriching the sea to death (Scott W. Nixon, Scientific American, v276, Mar. 1997)
  29. Land-based activities: What remains to be done (Caroline Williams et al., Oceans and Coastal Management, v29 n1-3 p207-222, 1995)
  30. Solving the mysteries of ocean-borne trash (Kim Clark, US News and World Report, Apr. 12, 1999)
  31. What the brochures don't tell you (Consumer Reports, v63 n11 p8, Nov. 1998)
  32. Plasticizing the seafloor: An overview (E.D. Goldberg, Environmental Technology, v18 p195-202, 1997)
  33. Oil pollution (Ocean Planet,
  34. Toxic materials (Ocean Planet,
  35. Contamination of the deep sea (K.H. Ballschmiter et al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, v34 n5 p288-289, 1997)
  36. Contaminants in the Arctic marine environment: Priorities for protection (R.W. Macdonald et al., ICES Journal of Marine Science, v53 p537-563, 1996)
  37. Anthropogenic lead in Antarctic sea water (A.R. Flegal et al., Nature, v365, Sep. 16, 1993)
  38. Saving marine biodiversity (Robert J. Wilder et al., Issues in Science and Technology, v15 n3 p57, Spring 1999)
  39. Ecological roulette: The global transport of non-indigenous marine organisms (James T. Carlton and Jonathan B. Geller, Science, v261, Jul. 1993)
  40. Pattern, process, and prediction in marine invasion ecology (James T. Carlton, Biological Conservation, v78 p97-106, 1996)
  41. To introduce or not to introduce: trade-offs of non-indigenous organisms (Curtis C. Daehler and Dorla R. Gordon, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, v12 n11, Nov. 1997)
  42. Biological control of marine pests (Kevin D. Lafferty and Armand M. Kurtis, Ecology, v77 p1989-2000, 1996)
  43. Transport of toxic dinoflagellates via ships' ballast water: Bioeconomic risk assessment and efficacy of possible ballast water management strategies (Gustaaf M. Hallegraeff, Marine Ecology Progress Series, v168 p297-309, 1998)
  44. Experimental test of the effect of ultraviolet-B radiation in a planktonic community (Limnology and Oceanography, v44 n3 p586-596, 1999)
  45. Too many boats in the ocean (Serge Garcia, UNESCO Sources, n96, Dec. 1997)
  46. The mineral wealth of the Bismarck Sea (Raymond A. Binns and David L. Dekker, Scientific American, v276 p92, Mar. 1997)
  47. Bobbing bytes (The Economist, May 23, 1998)
  48. A survey of international agreements (NOAA,
  49. Convention on the Law of the Sea: Overview (DOALOS, Oceans and Law of the Sea,
  50. Principles for sustainable governance of the oceans (Robert Costanza et al., Science, v281 n5374 p198)
  51. The evolution of ocean law (Jon L. Jacobson and Alison Rieser, Scientific American, v276 p100, Mar. 1997)
  52. Unfinished business (Elisabeth Mann Borgese, UNESCO Sources, n96, Dec. 1997)
  53. Abandoned seas (Peter Weber, Worldwatch Paper 116, p38, Nov. 1993)
  54. MARPOL 73/78 overview (MARPOL 73/78, Office of Water,
  55. 1998 International Year of the Ocean: Message of UNESCO Director General (UNESCO Press,
  56. The policy makers' challenge - radioactive dumping in the Arctic Ocean (John Lamb et al., Oceanus, p89, Fall 1993)
  57. The deep green sea (The Economist, May 23, 1998)
  58. Ocean energy and minerals: Resources for the future (NOAA, 1998 Year of the Ocean,

Section III: The future of oceans

  1. Danger at sea: Our changing ocean - future directions (Seaweb,
  2. Danger at sea: Our changing ocean - difficulties in addressing the problems (Seaweb,
  3. Current status and future trends in ocean observation systems (Ram K. Mohan, MTS Journal, v32 n3 p96)
  4. Reflections on marine science contributions to sustainable development (Dr. Gunnar Kullenberg, Ocean and Coastal Management, v29 n1-3 p35-49, 1995)
  5. Ocean research for understanding global climate (John Justus, Oceans and Coastal Resources: A Briefing Book,
  6. Instruments cast fresh eyes on the sea (Robert Irion, Science, v281 n5374 p194)
  7. Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS Project Office,
  8. Ocean drilling floats ambitious plans for growth (Richard A. Kerr, Science, v282 n5392 p1251)
  9. Scientific ocean drilling (Thomas A. Davies, MTS Journal, v32 n3 p5)
  10. Burial of radioactive waste under the seabed (Charles D. Hollister and Steven Nodis, Scientific American, Jan. 1998)

[Download article as PDF]

[Background sources: mountains] [Background sources: population]