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INTRODUCTION

FOREWORD
Peter H. Raven

PART 1: OVERVIEW

PART 2: ATLAS
PART 3: CASE STUDIES
PART 4: ISSUES
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BACKGROUND SOURCES

Freshwater

Section I: Introduction to freshwater

  1. Water: Critical shortages ahead? (WRI, World Resources 1998-99, p188-193, 1999)
  2. An introduction to global freshwater issues (Peter H. Gleick, Water in Crisis, Chapter 1 p3-12, 1993)
  3. 13. Water and fisheries (WRI, World Resources 1996-97, http://www.wri.org/wri/wr-96-97/wa_txt1.html)
  4. World freshwater resources (Igor A. Shiklomanov, in Peter H. Gleick, Water in Crisis, p14-24, 1993)
  5. Freshwater resources and withdrawals, 1970-98, data table (WRI, World Resources 1998-99, p304-312, 1998)
  6. Water resources: agriculture, the environment, and society (David Pimentel et al., BioScience, v47 p97-106, Feb. 1997)
  7. State of the world's water and implications for the western United States (Peter H. Gleick, http://www.globalchange.org/impactal/96nov1d.htm)
  8. Groundwater: The invisible resource (World Meteorological Organization (WMO), http://www.unicef.org/wwd98/papers/wmo.htm)
  9. Emerging water shortages (Worldwatch Institute, http://www.worldwatch.org/alerts/990717.html, Jul. 17, 1999)
  10. A rare and precious resource (Houria Tazi Sadeq and Maghreb-Machrek, UNESCO Courier, http://www.unesco.org/courier/1999_02/uk/dossier/txt11.htm)
  11. Dividing the waters: Food security, ecosystem health, and the new politics of scarcity (Sandra Postel, Worldwatch Paper 132, p5-64, Sep. 1996)
  12. The world's water (Peter Gleick, Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 1998)
  13. 6.1.13 Lakes and rivers (V.H. Heywood (ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment, p399, 1995)
  14. UN assessment of freshwater resources (Earth Summit + 5, http://www.un.org/ecosocdev/geninfo/sustdev/waterrep.htm)
  15. Comprehensive assessment of the freshwater resources of the world (Commission on Sustainable Development, http://www.wmo.ch/web/homs/cfwadesc.html)
  16. GEO-1 - Water (various chapters) (http://www.unep.org/unep/eia/geo1)
  17. General summary: The former Soviet Union (Aquastat, http://www.fao.org/waicent/FaoInfo/Agricult/)
  18. General summary: Near East (Aquastat, http://www.fao.org/waicent/FaoInfo/Agricult/)
  19. General summary: Asia (Aquastat, http://www.fao.org/waicent/FaoInfo/Agricult/)
  20. General summary: Africa (Aquastat, http://www.fao.org/waicent/FaoInfo/Agricult/)
  21. Effects of biodiversity on water distribution and quality in ecosystems (V.H. Heywood (ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment, p412, 1995)
  22. Water and ecosystems (Alan P. Covich, in Peter H. Gleick (ed.), Water in Crisis, Chapter 4 p40-55)
  23. What is ground water? (D.W. Clarke and D.W. Briar, http://water.usgs.gov/public/pubs/FS/OFR93-643)
  24. Groundwater recharge: an overview of estimation "problems" and recent developments (I. Simmers, in N.S. Robins (ed.), Groundwater Pollution, Aquifer Recharge and Vulnerability, p107-115, 1998)
  25. Nutrient retention in riparian ecotenes (Lena B.-M.Vought et al., Ambio, v23 n6 p342, Sep. 1994)
  26. Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on aquatic ecosystems (Donat P. Hader et al., Ambio, v24 n3 p174, May 1995)
  27. Earth's rivers (Sandra Postel, USA Today, 124 p74-6, Nov. 1995)
  28. Stream biodiversity: The ghost of land use past (J. S. Harding et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v95 n25 p14843-47, Dec. 8, 1998)
  29. Types of instream values (The World Bank, http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/)
  30. Interactions between eutrophication and contaminants: Towards a new research concept for the European aquatic environment (Ambio, v24 n6 p383-385, Sept. 1995)
  31. Water use inside the home (Waterwiser, 1999)
  32. Offstream use (USGS, http://ga.water.usgs.gov/wustates/tn/factoffstream.html)
  33. The influence of forest vegetation on water and soil (H.G. Wilm, Unasylva, v11 n4, http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5385e/x5385e03.htm)
  34. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Working group II second assessment report, Water resources management group (Peter H. Gleick, http://www.globalchange.org/impactal/96nov2d.htm)
  35. Climate change and US water management (Peter Gleick, http://www.globalchange.org/)
  36. Lake Victoria: A case in international cooperation (Wulf Klohn, Mihailo Andjelic, http://www.fao.org/ag/AGL/AGLW/webpub/lakevic/LAKEVIC4.htm)
  37. A transportation model assessment of the risk to native mussel communities from zebra mussel spread (Daniel W. Schneider et al., Conservation Biology, v12 n4 p788-800, Aug. 1998)
  38. Mussel mass (Ellen Perlman, Governing, v10 p39, Aug. 97)

Section II: Freshwater and human population

  1. Human domination of Earth's ecosystems (Peter M. Vitousek et al., Science, v277 n5325 p494)
  2. Why population growth matters to freshwater availability (http://populationaction.org/why_pop/waterfs.htm)
  3. Sustaining water, easing scarcity (Tom Gardner-Outlaw, Robert Engelman, Population Action International, 1997)
  4. Sustaining water: Population and the future of renewable water supplies (Robert Engelman and Pamela LeRoy, Population Action International, 1993)
  5. Human appropriation of renewable fresh water (Sandra L. Postel et al., Science, v271 n5250 p785)
  6. Solution for a water-short world (Population Reports, v26 n1, Sep. 1998)
  7. Dividing the waters (Sandra L. Postel, Technology Review, Apr. 1997)
  8. Human population and water: To the limits in the 21st century (Peter H. Gleick, Sep. 1995)
  9. Percentages of population with access to safe water 1990-1994 (http://www.undp.org/popin/wdtrends/bss/bssmapsw.htm)
  10. Fact sheet: population and water (National Wildlife Federation, Sep. 1997)
  11. Population as a scale factor: Impacts on environment and development (Robert Engelman, in Barbara Sundberg and William R. Moomaw, People and their Planet, 1999)
  12. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen (Stephen Carpenter et al., Issues in Ecology, n3, http://esa.sdsc.edu/carpenter.htm, Summer 1998)
  13. Water dynamics and population pressure in the Nepalese Himalayas (P.B. Shah, GeoJournal, v40 n1-2 p45-51, 1996)
  14. Human population growth and over-utilization of the biotic resources of the Murray- Darling river system, Australia (Russell J. Shiel, GeoJournal, v40 n1-2 p101-113, 1996)
  15. The Role of phosphorus in the eutrophication of receiving waters: A review (David L. Correll, Journal of Environmental Quality, v27 p261-266, 1998)
  16. Wetlands and lakes as Nitrogen traps (Mats Jansson et al., Ambio, v23 n6 p320-323, Sep. 1994)
  17. Water resources and climate change (Kenneth Frederick, http://www.rff.org/issue_briefs/PDF_files/ccbrf3.pdf)
  18. Mountain lakes; Sensitivity to acid deposition and global climate change (Brit Lisa Skjelkvale and Richard F. Wright, Ambio, v27 n4 p280-287, Jun. 1998)
  19. Rapid ecological changes in a large subtropical lake undergoing cultural eutrophication (Karl E. Havens et al., Ambio, v25 n3 p150-155, May 1996)
  20. Arsenic and drinking water contamination (Tom W. Gebel, Science, v283 n5407 p1455e)
  21. The Bangladesh arsenic mitigation water supply project (World Bank/UNDP Water and Sanitation Program)
  22. No single management strategy for Nitrogen reduction (Water Environment and Technology, v6 n7 p27-29, Jul. 1994)
  23. Switzerland: Swiss agri-environmental policy and water quality (Stephan Pfefferli and Albert Zimmermann, OECD Workshop on the Sustainable Management of Water in Agriculture: Issues and Policies, p183, http://www.oecd.org/agr/publications/index1.htm)
  24. Downstream ecological effects of dams (Franklin K. Ligon et al., BioScience, v45 p183-92, Mar. 1995)
  25. China: The dammed (The Economist, Nov. 1, 1997)
  26. Damming the Senegal river (WRI, World Resources 1998-99, p108-114, 1998)
  27. Science and values in river restoration in the Grand Canyon (John C. Schmidt et al., BioScience, v48 n9 p735-47, Sep. 1998)
  28. Water quality and health (Linda Nash, in Peter H. Gleick (ed), Water in Crisis, 1993)
  29. Urbanization and waterborne disease (Timothy E. Ford (speaker), Water Population and Health, Jun. 1999)
  30. Microbiological safety of drinking water: United States and global perspectives (Timothy Ford, Environmental Health Perspectives, v107 p191-206 Supplement 1, Feb. 1999)
  31. Water scarcity as a key factor behind global food insecurity: Round table discussion (Mark Falkenmark et al., Ambio, v27 n2 p148-154, Mar. 1998)
  32. Water for food production: Will there be enough in 2025? (Sandra L. Postel, BioScience, v48 n8 p629-35, Aug. 98)
  33. Challenges in the field of water resources management in agriculture (Wulf E. Klohn and Bo G. Appelgren, http://www.fao.org/)
  34. Water and sustainable development international conference (Wulf Klohn and Hans W. Wolter, http://www.fao.org/)
  35. Small-scale irrigation for arid zones, principles and options (FAO, http://www.fao.org/)
  36. Irrigating with treated effluent (Herman Bouwer et al., Water Environment and Technology, v10 n9, Sep. 1998)
  37. Annex 1: Water-use efficiency on irrigation systems, a review of research carried out under DFID's engineering research programme (Donald Brown, Agricultural Water Management, v40 p139-147, 1999)
  38. Priorities for irrigated agriculture (A.W. Hall, Agricultural Water Management, v40 p25-29, 1999)
  39. Opportunities and constraints to improving irrigation water management: Foci for research (M.A. Burton et al., Agricultural Water Management, v40 p37-44, 1999)
  40. Sustaining rice-wheat system productivity in the Indo-Gangetic plains: Water management-related issues (I.P. Abrol, Agricultural Water Management, v40 p31-35, 1999)
  41. China's water shortage could shake world food security (Lester R. Brown and Brian Halweil, World Watch Magazine, Jul./Aug. 1998)
  42. Environmental sustainability of Egyptian agriculture: Problems and perspectives (Asit K. Biswas, Ambio, v24 n1 p16-21, Feb. 1995)
  43. United States: US water management for agriculture - a case study of the American West (US Dept. of Agric. (USDA), OECD Workshop on the Sustainable Management of Water in Agricultural Issues and Policies, p205, http://www.oecd.org/agr/publications/index1.htm)
  44. The flow of international water law: The International Law Commission's law of the non-navigational uses of international watercourses (David J. Lazerwitz, Global Legal Studies Journal, http://www.law.indiana.edu/glsj/vol1/lazer.html)
  45. International waterlaw: Regulations for cooperation and the discussion of the International Water Convention (Jorg Barandat and Aytul Kaplan, in Waltina Scheumann and Manuel Schiffler (eds), Water in the Middle East, p12-30, 1998)
  46. IB10019: Western water resource issues (Betsy A. Cody, http://cnie.org/nle/h2o-31.html, Apr. 30, 1999)
  47. Western water resource issues II (Betsy A. Cody, http://www.cnie.org/nle/h2o-31a.html, Apr. 30, 1999)
  48. States slowly move ahead with water pollutant trading programs (Janet Pelley, Environmental Science and Technology, p446a, Oct. 1998)
  49. Toward sustainable management of water resources (Ismail Serageldin, The World Bank, 1995)
  50. Productive efficiency and allocative efficiency: Why better water management may not solve the problem (Tony Allan, Agricultural Water Management, v40 p71-75, 1999)
  51. Water crisis in developing world: Misconceptions about solutions (Harold D. Frederiksen, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, p79-87, Mar./Apr. 1996)
  52. Escaping from ongoing land/water mismanagement (Ambio, v25 n3 p211-213, May 1996)
  53. Strategically managing the world's water (Water Resources Management, http://www-esd.worldbank.org/html/esd/env/envmat/vol2f96/strateg.htm)
  54. A snapshot of conservation management: 1998 survey of state water conservation programs, Executive summary (Joseph A. Miri, http://www.waterwiser.org/frameset2.cfm?b=6)
  55. Strategic approaches to freshwater management: Background paper - the ecosystem approach (http://iucn.org/themes/ramsar/key, 1999)
  56. Strategic approaches to freshwater management: Recommendations for action (http://iucn.org/themes/ramsar/key)
  57. The management challenge (USDESA, http://www.unicef.org/wwd98/papers/undesa.htm)
  58. Sustainability Criteria for Water Resources Systems (Task Committee on Sustainability Criteria, Water Resources Planning and Management Division, Asce and Working Group, UNESCO/IHP Project M-4.3, p18-36, 1998)
  59. Groundwater clean-up options (Diane S. Roote et al., Chemical Engineering, May 1997)
  60. Contain contaminated groundwater (Robert D. Mutch, Jr. et al., Chemical Engineering, May 1997)
  61. Restoration of Lake Erie: Contribution of water quality and natural resource management (Joseph F. Koonce et al., Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, v53 n1 p105-112, 1996)
  62. Just when you thought it was safe (The Economist, Nov. 16, 1996)
  63. Water and conflict (Peter Gleick, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, http://www.wsscc.org/vision21/docs/doc15.html)
  64. Water and human security (Aaron T. Wolf, AVISO, v3, Jun. 1999)
  65. Conflicts over the Nile or conflicts on the Nile? (Manuel Schiffler, in Waltina Scheumann and Manuel Schiffler (eds), Water in the Middle East, 1998)
  66. Economic instruments for improving water use efficiency: Theory and practice (R.J. Grimble, Agricultural Water Management, v40 p77-82, 1999)
  67. Water as an economic good (Desmond McNeill, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, http://www.wsscc.org./vision21/docs/doc28.html)
  68. Water as an economic good: A solution, or a problem? (C.J. Perry et al., Research Report 14, 1997)
  69. Water allocation mechanism: Principles and examples (Ariel Dinar et al., http://worldbank.org/)
  70. Economic instruments for sustainable resource management: The case of Botswana's water resources (Jaap Arntzen, Ambio, v24 n6 p335, Sep. 1995)
  71. Closing a water resource: Some policy considerations (Brian and Lynne Chatterton, MEWREW SOAS Occasional Paper (not to be quoted without the authors' permissions), Oct. 1995)
  72. 'Virtual water': A long term solution for water shortage in Middle Eastern economies? (Tony Allan et al., 1997)
  73. Resolving water shortages via tradable water rights (www.worldbank.org/)
  74. Tradable property rights to water (Mateen Thobani, Private Sector, http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/notes/water.htm, Feb. 1995)
  75. Private sector participation in the water sector (Nick Johnston and Libby Wood, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, http://www.wsscc.org/vision21/docs/doc21.html)
  76. Getting the private sector involved in water: What to do in the poorest of countries? (Penelope J. Brook Cowen, Private Sector, http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/notes/water.htm, Jan. 1997)
  77. Financing water and sanitation projects: The unique risks (David Haarmeyer and Ashoka Mody, Private Sector, http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/notes/water.htm, Sep. 1998)
  78. Who pays the piper? Who calls the tune? (UNESCO Courier, http://www.unesco.org/courier/1999_02/uk/dossier/txt21.htm)
  79. People and the Planet (v5 n3, Nov. 1996)
  80. When the Yellow River runs dry (South China Morning Post, Jun. 20, 1998)
  81. A social force called water (Down to Earth, v7 n10, http://www.oneworld.org/, Oct. 15, 1998)
  82. Perpetual thirst (Down to Earth, v7 n10, http://www.oneworld.org/, Feb. 28, 1999)
  83. Capital's downfall caused by drinking...of water (Sam Dillon, The New York Times, Jan. 29, 1998)
  84. Mexico policy options for managing aquifer over-exploitation (www.worldbank.org)

Section III: The future of freshwater

  1. Water in the 21st century (Peter Gleick, in Peter Gleick (ed.), Water in Crisis, Chapter 9, p105-113, 1993)
  2. California Water 2020: A Sustainable Vision, Executive summary (Peter Gleick et al. 1995)
  3. How do we get there: Technologies and practices for sustainable water (Peter Gleick et al., California Water 2020: A Sustainable Vision, p77-97, 1995)
  4. VII. Conclusions and recommendations (Peter Gleick et al., California Water 2020: A Sustainable Vision, p99-104, 1995)
  5. Agriculture (Peter Gleick et al., California Water 2020: A Sustainable Vision, p6 1995)
  6. Urban home and garden (Peter Gleick, p10, 1995)
  7. Environmental sanitation from an ecosystems approach (Steven Esrey and Ingvar Anderson, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, http://www.wsscc.org/activities/vision21/docs/doc39.html)
  8. Household water savings could reduce future water infrastructure costs by billions (Water Environment and Technology, v10 n9, Sep. 1998)
  9. Integrated wastewater management (The World Bank, p129-135, http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/essd/essd.nsf/GlobalView/PPAH/$File/19_iwm.pdf)
  10. Optimizing wastewater treatment (The World Bank, p137-143, http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/essd/essd.nsf/GlobalView/PPAH/$File/20_owt.pdf)
  11. Satisfying an age-old thirst (Claudia H. Deutsch, The New York Times, May 16, 1999)
  12. Man-made river brings freshwater to coast (Douglas Jehl, The New York Times, Nov. 1, 1998)
  13. Frequently asked questions (Water Use Association of California, http://www.watereuse.org/Pages/faq.html)
  14. Water scarcity in the twenty-first century (David Seckler et al., IWMI Water Brief 1, http://www.cgiar.org/iwmi/pubs/WBrief/Wbrief1.pdf, Mar. 1999)
  15. World water demand and supply, 1990 to 2025: Scenarios and issues (David Seckler et al., http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/)
  16. Netherlands: Sustainable drinking water supply and dairy production (OECD Workshop on the Sustainable Management of Water in Agriculture: Issues and Policies, http://www.oecd.org/agr/publications/index1.htm)

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