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INTRODUCTION

FOREWORD
Peter H. Raven

PART 1: OVERVIEW

PART 2: ATLAS
PART 3: CASE STUDIES
PART 4: ISSUES
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   Agriculture
   Biodiversity
   Climate
   Coasts
   Coral
   Drylands
   Energy
   Fisheries
   Forests
   Freshwater
   Mountains
   Oceans
   Population
   Urbanization
   Wetlands

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BACKGROUND SOURCES

Fisheries

Section I: Fisheries

  1. Danger at sea: Our changing ocean - the cause of change (Seaweb: http://www.seaweb.org/campaigns/danger/causes.html, Aug. 6, 1999)
  2. Danger at sea: our changing ocean - signs of trouble (Seaweb: http://www.seaweb.org/campaigns/danger/causes.html, Aug. 6, 1999)
  3. Oceans and marine life at NRDC: Fish facts (National Resource Defense Council: http://www.nrdc.org/wildlife/fish/ffishf.asp, Aug. 6, 1999)
  4. FAO Fisheries Department: Fishery facts (Food and Agriculture Organization: http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/FISHERY/fifacts/newfact.asp, Jan. 6, 1999)
  5. FAO factfile: Total fish production (Food and Agriculture Organization: http://www.fao.org/news/factfile/Ff9604-e.htm, Jan. 6, 1999)
  6. FAO factfile: Landings by fishing area (Food and Agriculture Organization: http://www.fao.org/news/factfile/ff9803-e.htm, Aug. 6, 1999)
  7. FAO Fisheries Department: Recent trends in global fishery production (Food and Agriculture Organization: http://www.fao.org/fi/trends/catch/catch.asp)
  8. FAO factfile: World catch of bottom-dwelling open-sea (demersal) fish 1950-1995 (Food and Agriculture Organization: http://www.fao.org/news/factfile/FF9707-E.HTM, Aug. 6, 1999)
  9. Figure 1: World fish supply, catch, and aquaculture, 1950-96 (FAO FISHSTAT: Fisheries Statistics Yearbook, 1997)
  10. Various global marine fisheries showing declines greater than 65 percent, between peak year of production and 1996 (Worldwatch Institute data based on FAO, FISHSTAT: Fisheries Statistics Yearbook, 1998)
  11. Top ten fish producers, by catch and share of world total, 1996 (FAO, State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, Rome, 1997)
  12. Table 3: Top 10 fish exporters, by value, 1970-1995 (FAO Fishery Statistics Yearbook, Commodities, vols. 45 and 81, Rome, 1978 and 1997. Consumer price index numbers used for 1970: 0.247; 1995: 0.971)
  13. Table 1: Fish imports and exports, by world, developing and industrial countries, 1970-95 (FAO Fishery Statistics Yearbook, Commodities, vols. 45 and 81, Rome, 1978 and 1997)
  14. Promoting sustainable fisheries (Anne Platt McGinn, State of the World 1998)
  15. How bountiful are ocean fisheries? (Brian J. Rothschild, http://www.gcrio.org/CONSEQUENCES/winter96/oceanfish.html)
  16. III. Fish consumption and aquatic ecosystems (WRI, Critical Consumption Trends and Implications: Degrading Earth's Ecosystems, http://www.igc.org/wri/critcons/fish.pdf, Aug. 6, 1999)
  17. The world's imperiled fish (Carl Safina, Scientific American, Nov. 1995)
  18. Renewing the world's fisheries (Carl Safina, People and the Planet, v7 n2 p10-13, 1998)
  19. Net losses: Fishing decimating oceans 'unlimited' bounty (Anne Swardson, The Washington Post, Aug. 14, 1994)
  20. Overharvesting devastates fish population worldwide (Anne Swardson, The Washington Post, Aug. 14, 1994)
  21. Technology in the capture fisheries (David N. MacLennan, from FAO Fisheries Department Kyoto conference outcome and papers presented, http://www.fao.org/fi/agreem/kyoto/H6F.asp)
  22. New Zealand v. the toothfish pirates (The Economist, Feb. 13, 1999)
  23. Global environmental trends: Diminishing returns: World fisheries under pressure (WRI, World Resources 1998-99, p195-196)
  24. FAO Fisheries Department: Recent trends in global fishery production (Richard Grainger, http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/FISHERY/trends/catch/catch.asp, Jul. 6, 1999)
  25. FAO Fisheries Department: Review of the state of world fishery resources: Marine fisheries (Marine Resources Services, FAO Fisheries Circular No. 920, FIRM/C920, http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w4248e/w4248e00.htm, Sep. 6, 1999)
  26. World review of fisheries and aquaculture (FAO, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (Sofia) 1996, http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/FISHERY/publ/sofia/sofiae.asp, May 5, 1999)
  27. Part 1: World review of fisheries and aquaculture (FAO, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (Sofia) 1998, http://www.fao.org/docrep/w9900e/w9900e02.htm, May 5, 1999)
  28. Part 5: Fisheries activities of country groupings (FAO, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (Sofia) 1998, http://www.fao.org/docrep/w9900e/w9900e06.htm, May 5, 1999)
  29. Plots of regional fishery characteristics (FAO Fisheries Department http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/FISHERY/fifacts/PLOTS/, Aug. 6, 1999)
  30. Commercial Whaling (Seaweb: http://www.seaweb.org/background/book/whaling.html)
  31. Declining survival probability threatens the North Atlantic right whale (Hal Caswell, Masami Fujiwara, and Solange Brault, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, v96 p3308-3313, Mar. 1999)
  32. Troubled waters (Deborah Cramer, The Atlantic Monthly, Jun. 1995)
  33. Over fishing disrupts entire ecosystem (Nigil Williams, Science, v279 n5352 p809)
  34. Fishing down the marine food web (Danial Pauly, Villy Christensen, Johanne Dalsgaard, Rainer Froese and Francisco Torres Jr., Science, v279 n5352 p860)
  35. Drastic declines weaken Chesapeake's rich fishery (D'Vera Cohn, The Washington Post, Aug. 14, 1994)
  36. The bycatch problem (National Audubon Society, Indiscriminate Slaughter at Sea, http://www.audubon.org/campaign/lo/ow/iss.html, Jul. 6, 1999)
  37. Bycatch management and the economics of discarding (S. Pascoe, FAO Fisheries Department, FAO Technical Paper No. 370, Rome, 1997, http://www.fao.org/fi/publ/abstract/t370f.asp, Jan. 6, 1999)
  38. Science, v282 n5388 p391, Oct. 16, 1998.
  39. Shrimp cocktail: recipe for disaster (National Resource Defense Council, Oceans and Marine Life at NRDC, http://www.nrdc.org/wildlife/fish/fshrimp.asp, Feb. 6, 1999)
  40. Oceans at risk (Michael Weber, Popular Science, v246 n5 p85, May 1995)
  41. Extinction on the high seas (David Malakoff, Science, v277 n5325 p486)
  42. Cleaning up the seas (Bruce McKay and Kieran Mulvaney, People and the Planet, v7 n2, 1998)
  43. Global nitrogen overload problem grows critical (Anne Simon Moffat, Science, v279 n5353 p988)
  44. Oil in water (Marguerite Holloway, Scientific American, v280 n8 p38, Mar. 1999)
  45. The management of fisheries and marine ecosystems (Louis W. Botsford, Juan Carlos Castilla, and Charles H. Peterson, Science, v277 n5325 p509)
  46. Farming fish: the aquaculture boom (Global Environmental Trends in World Resources 1998-99, p158)
  47. Part V: Aquatic resources (25 Years of Improvement, http://www.worldbank.org/html/cgiar/25years/aqua.html, Jun. 8, 1999)
  48. Marine Aquaculture (Seaweb, http://www.seaweb.org/background/book/aquaculture.html, Aug. 6, 1999)
  49. Review of world aquaculture (FAO Fisheries Department, FAO Fisheries Circular No. 886, FIRI/C886 (Rev.1) Rome, 1997, http://www.fao.org/)
  50. Study questions aquaculture benefits (Michael Kahn, Journal of Commerce, Nov. 2, 1998)
  51. Nature's subsidies to shrimp and salmon farming (Rosamond L. Naylor, Rebecca J. Golburg, Harold Monney, Malcolm Beveridge, Jason Clay, Carl Folke, Nils Kautsky, Jane Lubchenco, Jurgenne Primavera and Merly Williams, Science, v282, Oct. 30, 1998)
  52. Review of the state of world fishery resources: Inland fisheries (Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Services, FAO Fisheries Circular No. 942, Rome, 1999, ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/document/circular/all-16a.pdf, Aug. 6, 1999)
  53. Inland fisheries are under increasing threat from environmental degradation (FAO, Mar. 24, 1999, http://www.fao.org/waicent/ois/press_ne/presseng/1999/pren9916.htm)

Section II: Fisheries and human population

  1. Marine fisheries, population and consumption: Science and policy issues (Lisa Speer, 1995, (password protected) http://www.aaas.org/international/psd/fisheries/SPEER.htm)
  2. Catching the Limit: Population and Decline of Fisheries (Population Action International, 1995).
  3. Tropical marine fisheries and the future of coral reefs: A brief review with emphasis on Southeast Asia (J.W. McManus, Coral Reefs, v16S p121, 1997)
  4. Coasts in crisis (Don Hinrchsen, Issues in Science and Technology, v12 p39, Summer 1996)
  5. Death by suffocation in the Gulf of Mexico (David Malakoff, Science, v281 n5374 p190)
  6. Loaves and fishes (The Economist, Mar. 21, 1998)
  7. In India, a battle for survival (Molly Moore, The Washington Post, Aug.14, 1994)
  8. American or Canadian? Whose salmon is it, anyway? (Charles Trueheart, The Washington Post, Aug.14, 1994)
  9. Salmon counting takes a high-tech turn (Steven Perarlstein, The Washington Post, Mar. 4, 1999)
  10. Estimating the value of in-season estimates of abundance of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) (Michael R. Link and Randall M. Peterman, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Jun. 1998)
  11. US and Canada Agree on a plan to restrict catches of endangered salmon (Sam Howe Verhovek, The New York Times, Jun. 4, 1999)
  12. US-Canada salmon deal aims to conserve stocks (Edward Alden, The Financial Times (London), Jun. 7, 1999)
  13. Assessing excess fishing capacity at world-wide level (FAO Fisheries Department, http://www.fao.org/fishery/NEWS/ASSESS/CAPAsF.htm, Jan. 6, 1999)
  14. Reversal of the burden of proof in fisheries management (Paul K. Dayton, Science, v279 n5352 p821)
  15. Net loss: Fish, jobs, and the marine environment (Peter Weber, Worldwatch Paper 120, Jul. 1994)
  16. Rocking the boat: Conserving fisheries and protecting jobs (Anne Platt McGinn, Worldwatch Paper 142, Jul. 1998)
  17. Just when you thought it was safe (The Economist, Nov. 16, 1996)
  18. Oceans and the Law of the Sea: Overview (Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, http://www.un.org/Depts/los/losconv1.htm, Jul. 6 1999)
  19. Table showing the current status of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and of the agreement relating to the implementation of part XI of the Convention (Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, http://www.un.org./Depts/los/los94st.htm, Jul. 6 1999)
  20. On the high seas: The law of the jungle (Jessica Mathews, The Washington Post, Apr. 6, 1995)
  21. No more catch as catch can (The Washington Post, Aug. 7, 1995)
  22. A modest step to save the fish (The New York Times, Aug. 8, 1995)
  23. US still at sea on key treaty (Sean Connaugton, Journal of Commerce, Oct. 2, 1998)
  24. Governments support new international commitments to reduce over fishing and over-capacity (FAO, Mar. 11, 1999, http://www.fao.org/waicent/ois/press_ne/presseng/1999/pren9911.htm, Jan. 6, 1999)
  25. Lifting the veil on perverse subsidies (Norman Myers, Nature, v392 p327, 1998)
  26. The politics of over fishing (Simon Fairlie, Mike Hagler, and Brian O'Riordan, The Ecologist, v25 p46, Mar./Apr., May/Jun., 1995)
  27. Creating incentives to curb over fishing (Rodney M. Fujita, D. Douglas Hopkins, and W.R. Zach Willey, Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, v11 p29, Summer 1996).
  28. Victoria's not-so-secret ruin (Mark Jerome Walters, Audubon, v96 n1 p14, Jan. 1994).
  29. Galapagos: Too many people (The Economist, May 10, 1997)
  30. Twilight of the cod (Robert Kunzig, Discover, v16 p44, Apr. 1995)
  31. Contribution to food fish supplies in review of the state of world aquaculture (A.G.J. Tacon, FAO Fisheries Circular No. 886, Rome, 1997, http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w7499e/w7499e17.htm, Jan. 6, 1999)
  32. International trade in review of the state of world aquaculture (A. Lem and Z.H. Shehadeh, FAO Fisheries Circular No. 886, Rome, 1997, http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w7499e/w7499e04.htm, Jan. 6, 1999)
  33. Aquaculture in Farming Salmon: A Briefing Book (Michael L. Weber, Seaweb, http://www.seaweb.org/campaigns/sac/aquacul.html, Aug. 6, 1999)
  34. Forward in Farming Salmon: A Briefing Book (Michael L. Weber, Seaweb, http://www.seaweb.org/campaigns/sac/aquacul.html, Aug. 6, 1999)
  35. Impacts of Salmon Farming in Farming Salmon: A Briefing Book (Michael L. Weber, Seaweb, http://www.seaweb.org/campaigns/sac/aquacul.html, Aug. 6, 1999)
  36. Shrimp farming: Going swimmingly (The Economist, Feb. 21, 1998)

Section III: The future of fisheries

  1. Part 4: Outlook: Expected trends in supply and demand in the state of world fisheries and aquaculture 1998 (FAO, http://www.fao.org/docrep/w9900e/w9900e05.htm, Jan. 6, 1999)
  2. Part 2: Selected issues facing fishers and aquaculturists in the state of world fisheries and aquaculture 1998 (FAO, http://www.fao.org/docrep/w9900e/w9900e05.htm, Jan. 6, 1999)
  3. 13. Water and fisheries (WRI, World Resources 1996-97, Marine Fishing Trends, http://www.wri.org/wri/wr-96-97/wa_txt3.html, Feb. 6, 1999)
  4. Protecting fishing resources (RT: Resources Fisheries, SD Dimensions, Posted Jun. 3, 1996, http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/faoinfo/sustdev/Rtdirect/Rtre0008.htm, Aug. 6, 1999)
  5. United Nations must strengthen protection of straddling and highly migratory fish (Lisa Speer, Fisheries, v19 n12, Dec. 1994)
  6. Recent international agreements and the precautionary approach: New direction for fisheries management science (Laura J. Richards and Jean-Jacques Maguire, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v55 n6, Jun. 1998)
  7. 'No-take' zones spark fisheries debate (Karen F. Schmidt, Science, v277 n5325 p489)
  8. Equivalence in yield from marine reserves and traditional fisheries management (Alan Hastings and Louis W. Botsford, Science, v284 n5419 p1537)
  9. FAO: Future of fish for food depends on better management of oceans (FAO, http://www.fao.org/waicent/ois/press_ne/presseng/1998/pren9831.htm)
  10. The deep green sea (The Economist, May 23, 1998)
  11. Principles and criteria for sustaining fishing (Marine Stewardship Council, Apr. 1, 1998, http:www.msc.org/cgibin/library/artic…2&area=1&id=891420599&html=template.html, Jul. 6, 1999)
  12. Principles and criteria for sustaining fishing: Airlie House draft (Marine Stewardship Council, Issue 1, Oct. 1998)
  13. Blue revolution (Anne Platt McGinn, World Watch, v11 n2, Mar./Apr., 1998)
  14. 1.3 Issues and challenges in review of the state of world aquaculture issues (Z.H. Shehadeh, and M. Pedini, http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w7499e/w7499e24.htm, Jan. 6, 1999)
  15. 2.4 Environment and sustainability in review of the state of world aquaculture issues (U. Barg and M.J. Phillips, http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w7499e/w7499e14.htm. Jan. 6, 1999)
  16. Sustainable aquaculture in agriculture technology notes (Rural Development Department, The World Bank, http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/essd/kb.nsf/0316e416c9e8079
    0852566a60065f4c1/33de56a4527f24c38525671a0053c32f?OpenDocument
    )
  17. The Future in Farming Salmon: A Briefing Book (Michael L. Weber, http://www.seaweb.org/campaigns/sac/future.html)
  18. GESAMP: Integration of aquaculture into coastal management (FAO Fisheries Department, http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/fishery/meetings/gesamp/wg31cm.asp, Jan. 6, 1999)
  19. A precautionary approach for the introduction of new species in aquaculture (FAO Fisheries Department, http://www.fao.org/fi/news/precaut/sard.asp)
  20. Eco-farming in Fiji (Hal Kane, World Watch, v10 p28, Jul./Aug., 1997)

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