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INTRODUCTION

FOREWORD
Peter H. Raven

PART 1: OVERVIEW

PART 2: ATLAS
PART 3: CASE STUDIES
PART 4: ISSUES
Sources
Background sources
   Agriculture
   Biodiversity
   Climate
   Coasts
   Coral
   Drylands
   Energy
   Fisheries
   Forests
   Freshwater
   Mountains
   Oceans
   Population
   Urbanization
   Wetlands

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BACKGROUND SOURCES

Coasts

Section I: Coastal systems

  1. Coastal systems (V.H. Heywood (ed.) Global Biodiversity Assessment, p37, 1995)
  2. Ecosystems on the edge (Don Hinrichsen, The Amicus Journal, v18, Winter 1997)
  3. Abandoned Seas (Peter Weber, Worldwatch Paper 116, Nov. 1993)
  4. Coasts in crisis (Don Hinrichsen, Issues in Science and Technology, p39, Summer 1996)
  5. A sea of troubles (Kieran Mulvaney, E magazine, v9 n1 p28-35, Jan./Feb. 1998)
  6. Dying seas (Anne E. Platt, World Watch, p10, Jan./Feb. 1995)
  7. Mangrove systems (V.H. Heywood (ed.) in Global Biodiversity Assessment, p387, 1995)
  8. A mangrove is more than just a tree... (AIMS, 1998)
  9. Mangroves and their products (AIMS, 1999)
  10. The global conservation status of mangroves (Elizabeth J. Farnsworth and Aaron M. Ellison, Ambio, v26 n6 p328-334, Sept. 1997)
  11. The global distribution and status of mangrove ecosystems (Mark D. Spalding, Intercoast Network -- Mangrove Edition, p20, Fall 1998)
  12. Mangroves and other coastal forests (Junaid K. Choudhury, XI World Forstry Congress, v6 Topic 36.6, Antalya, Turkey, Oct. 13-22, 1997) http://www.fao.org/montes/foda/wforcong/PUBLI/V6/T386E/DEFAULT.HTM)
  13. Stirring up the Chesapeake's cradle of life (Jocelyn Kaiser, Science, v281 n5374 p196)
  14. Salt marshes (John M. Teal, Oceanus, p13, Spring/ Summer 1998)
  15. Natural and human-induced disturbance of seagrasses (Frederick T.
    Short et al., Enviromental Conservation, p17-27, 1996)
  16. Marine botanical communities in southern Mozambique: Sea grass and seaweed diversity and conservation (Salomoa Olinda Bandeira, Ambio, v2 n7-8, Dec. 1995)
  17. Great Lakes Erosion Fact sheet (Great Lakes Hydraulics and Hydrology Branch)
  18. Coastal zone typology (Dutch Coastal Zone Management Center)
  19. Natural processes (Dutch Coastal Zone Management Center)
  20. CZM and the coast sub-system (Dutch Coastal Zone Management Center)
  21. Coastal-zone biodiversity patterns (G. Carleton Ray, BioScience, v41 n7, Jul./Aug. 1991)
  22. Varying effects of low dissolved oxygen on trophic interactions in an estuarine food web (Denise L. Breitburg, et al., Ecological Monographs, p489-507, 1997)
  23. Mangrove biodiversity and ecosystem function (Christopher B. Field et al., Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, v7 p3-14, 1998)
  24. Global patterns of pre-dispersal propagule predation in mangrove forests (Elizabeth J. Farnsworth, et al., Biotropica, v29 n3 p318-330, 1997)
  25. Ecological role of grapsid crabs in mangrove ecosystems: A review (S.Y. Lee, Mar. Freshwater Res., v49 p335-343, 1998)
  26. Utilisation of mangroves and seagrasses by fishes in the Negombo Estuary, Sri Lanka (L. Pinto et al., Marine Biology, v126 p333-345, 1996)
  27. Larvae dispersion in coral reefs and mangroves (Eric Wolanski et al., American Scientist, v85 p236-46, May/Jun. 1997)
  28. Oceans and coasts:
    Facts about oceans and coasts (World Resources Institute, http://www.wri.org/facts/oceans.html)
  29. Mangrove vegetation: An evolutionary perspective (P. Saenger, Mar. Freshwater Res., v49 p277-286, 1998)
  30. Coastlines at Risk: An Index of Potential Development-Related Threats to Coastal Ecosystems (Dirk Bryant et al., WRI)
  31. Overview of regional status and trends (United Nations Environment Programme, GEO-1, http://www.unep.org/unep/eia/geo1/exsum/ex3.htm, 1997)
  32. Polar regions (United Nations Environment Programme, GEO-1, Chapter 2: Regional perspectives, http://www.unep.org/unep/eia/geo1/ch/ch2_15.htm, 1997)
  33. Latin America and the Carribean (United Nations Environment Programme, GEO-1, Chapter 2: Regional perspectives, http://www.unep.org/unep/eia/geo1/ch/ch2_9.htm, 1997)
  34. Europe and CIS countries (United Nations Environment Programme, GEO-1, Chapter 2: Regional perspectives, http://grid2.cr.usgs.gov/geo1/ch/ch2_7.htm, 1997)
  35. Asia and the Pacific (United Nations Environment Programme, GEO-1, Chapter 2: Regional perspectives, http://grid2.cr.usgs.gov/geo1/ch/ch2_5.htm, 1997)
  36. Africa (United Nations Environment Programme, GEO-1, Chapter 2: Regional perspectives, http://grid2.cr.usgs.gov/geo1/ch/ch2_3.htm, 1997)
  37. West Asia (United Nations Environment Programme, GEO-1, Chapter 2: Regional perspectives, http://grid2.cr.usgs.gov/geo1/ch/ch2_13.htm, 1997)
  38. The Arctic (United Nations Environment Programme, GEO-1, Chapter 2: Regional perspectives, http://grid2.cr.usgs.gov/geo1/ch/ch2_16.htm, 1997)
  39. North America (United Nations Environment Programme, GEO-1, Chapter 2: Regional perspectives, http://grid2.cr.usgs.gov/geo1/ch/ch2_11.htm, 1997)

Section II: Coasts and human population

  1. Coastal population growth (Don Hinrichsen, Coastal Waters of the World, Chapter 1, 1998)
  2. Humanity and the world's coasts: A status report (Don Hinrichsen, The Amicus Journal, v18 n4 p16, Winter 1997)
  3. Estimates of coastal populations (Joel E. Cohen et al., Science, v278 n5341 p1209c)
  4. Perception and reality: Assessing priorities for sustainable development in the Niger River Delta (David Moffat et al., Ambio, v24 n7-8, Dec. 1995)
  5. Coastal demographics and development patterns (Jeffrey A. Zinn, Oceans and Coastal Resources: A Briefing Book Congressional Research Service Report 97 - 588 ENR, http://www.cnie.org/nle/crsreports/briefingbooks/oceans)
  6. Holding the world at bay (Susan Pollack, Sierra, v81 p50-5, May/Jun. 1996)
  7. Economic values of ecological services from a mangrove ecosystem (Miguel
    A. Cabrera et al., Intercoast Network -- Mangrove Edition, Fall 1998)
  8. Mangrove management and utilization in Eastern Africa (A.K. Semesi, Ambio, v27 n8, Dec. 1998)
  9. Men, women and natural resources in Kwale District, Kenya (Scolastica A. Juma, Ambio, v27 n8, Dec. 1998)
  10. Different kinds of mangrove forests provide different goods and services (Katherine C. Ewel et al., Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, v7 p83-94, 1998)
  11. Trade-offs of mangrove area development in the Philippines (Donna J. Nickerson, Ecological Economics 28, p279-298, 1999)
  12. Paradise threatened: Land use and erosion on
    St. John, US Virgin Islands
    (Lee H. MacDonald et al., Environmental Management, v21 n6 p851-863, 1997)
  13. Environmental economics in estuary management: The Peconic Estuary Program (James J. Opaluch et al., Intercoast Network -- Mangrove Edition, Fall 1998)
  14. The economic valuation of saltwater marsh supporting marine recreational fishing in the southeastern United States (Frederick W. Bell, Ecological Economics 21, p243-254, 1997)
  15. Coastal and fisheries resources in danger (Don Hinrichsen, Coastal Waters of the World, Chapter 2, 1998)
  16. A fisherman's tale (Survey 4 of 7) (The Economist, n2520, May 23, 1998)
  17. Fishing destroys kelp beds, study finds (The Dominion (Wellington), Jun. 17, 1999)
  18. Florida Bay's Troubled Fisheries: The Everglades Connection (WWF)
  19. "No-take" zones spark fisheries debate (Karen F. Schmidt, Science, v277 n5325 p489)
  20. GESAMP: Integration of aquaculture into coastal management (FAO Fisheries Department, http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/fishery/meetings/gesamp/wg31cm.asp)
  21. Danger, shrimps at work (John Krebs, New Scientist, Feb. 21, 1998)
  22. From small beginnings (George Chamberlain, New Scientist, Mar. 21, 1998)
  23. Environmental impact of prawn farming on Dutch Canal: The main water source for the prawn culture industry in Sri Lanka (A.S.L.E. Corea et al., Ambio, v24 n7-8, Dec. 1995)
  24. Self-pollution: A major threat to the prawn farming industry in Sri Lanka (Agnes Corea et al., Ambio, v27 n8, Dec. 1998)
  25. Fluxes and mass balances of nutrients in a semi-intensive shrimp farm in north-western Mexico (F. Paez-Osuna et al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, v34 n5 p290-297, 1997)
  26. Abandoned shrimp ponds: Options for mangrove rehabilitation (N.J. Stevenson et al., Intercoast Network -- Mangrove Edition, Fall 1998)
  27. Aquaculture in Madagascar's Mahajamba Bay (M. Rasolofoharinoro et al., Intercoast Network)
  28. Market opportunities for addressing the environmental and social impacts of wild-captured and pond-produced shrimp (Jason W. Clay, Intercoast Network - Mangrove Edition, Fall 1998)
  29. Farming and physiology of the red algae Eucheuma: Growing commercial importance in East Africa (Jonas Collen et al., Ambio, v24 n7-8, Dec. 1995)
  30. Some environmental aspects of open water algal cultivation: Zanzibar, Tanzania (Ron W. Johnstone, Ambio, v24 n7-8, Dec. 1995)
  31. The development of open-water algae farming in Zanzibar: Reflections on the socioeconomic impact (Per Pettersson-Lofquist, Ambio, v24 n7-8, Dec. 1995)
  32. An introduction to marine pollution (http://environment.tqn.com/library/weekly/aa010498.htm, Jan. 1, 1998)
  33. Cleaning up the seas (Bruce McKay and Kieran Mulvaney, People and the Planet, v7 n2, p14, 1998)
  34. On the edge (The Economist, n2395, May 1998)
  35. Nutrient biogeochemistry of the coastal zone (T.D. Jickells, Science, v281 n5374 p217)
  36. Is coastal eutrophication out of control (Janet Pelly, Environmental Science and Technology News, 462A, Oct.1, 1998)
  37. Human impact on
    nitrate export: An analysis using major world rivers (Nina F. Caraco et al., Ambio, v28 n2, p167, Mar. 1999)
  38. Effects of stormwater nutrient discharges on eutrophication processes in nearshore waters of the Florida Keys (Brian E. Lapointe et al., Estuaries, v19 n2B p422-435, Jun. 1996)
  39. Coastal eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: Importance of atmospheric deposition and groundwater as "new" nitrogen and other nutrient sources (Hans W. Paerl, Limnology Oceanology, v42 n5 (part 2) p1154-1165, 1997)
  40. Trends in the types, amounts, and toxicity of pesticides used in Tanzania (Avil J. Mmochi et al., Ambio, v27 n8 p669, Dec. 1998)
  41. Nitrogen pollution in the European Union - an economy-environment confrontation (Ester Van Der Voet et al., Environmental Conservation, v23 n3 p198-206, 1996)
  42. Influence of grazing and nitrogen loading on benthic microalgal biomass in estuaries of Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts (Elisabeth J. Duffy et al., The Biological Bulletin, v193 n2 p285-286, 1999)
  43. Variability in responses to nutrients and trace elements, and transmission of stressor effects through an estuarine food web (Denise L. Breitburg et al., Limnology and Oceanography, v44 n3 (part 2) p837-863, 1999)
  44. Marine debris kills and injures (Center For Marine Conservation, http://www.cmc-ocean.org/mdio/facts.php3)
  45. Coastal debris (EPA Office of Water, http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/coastal/debris.html)
  46. Beach sweeping and ocean keeping (Sea Frontiers, v39 n4 p30, Jul. 1993)
  47. A word from the International Oceanographic Foundation (Kurt C. Heinonen, Sea Frontiers, v40 p10, Dec. 1994)
  48. New study traces Padre Island trash to shrimpers (M. Katherine Heinrich, National Parks, v69 p21-3, Sep./Oct. 1995)
  49. Lessons from the experimental oiling of mature mangroves (AIMS Research, http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/mangroves/exp-oiling01.html)
  50. The 1997-1998 mass bleaching event around the world (AIMS Research, http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/coral-bleaching/1997-98-mbe/mbe-01.html)
  51. Large-scale damage to mangrove forests following two large oil spills in Panama (Norman C. Duke, Biotropica, v29 n1 p2-14, 1997)
  52. Retention and distribution of heavy metals in mangrove soils receiving wastewater (N.F.Y. Tam et al., Environmental Pollution, v94 n3 p283-291, 1996)
  53. Concentrations and spatial distrubution of trace metals in mangrove sediments from the Brisbane River, Australia (A.P. Mackey, Environmental Pollution, v90 n2 p181-186, 1995)
  54. Effects of wastewater discharge on microbial populations and enzyme activities in mangrove soils (N.Y.Y. Tam, Environmental Pollution, v102 p233-242, 1998)
  55. Health ecological and economic dimensions of Global Change Program (Health Ecological and Economic Dimensions of Global Change Program. Marine Ecosystems: Emerging Disease as Indicators of Change, Dec. 1998)
  56. Shellfish -- molluscs and crustacea (Health Ecological and Economic Dimensions of Global Change Program. Marine Ecosystems: Emerging Disease as Indicators of Change, Dec. 1998)
  57. Conclusions and recommendations (Health Ecological and Economic Dimensions of Global Change Program. Marine Ecosystems: Emerging Disease as Indicators of Change, Dec. 1998)
  58. Appendix II: The cost of the Pfiesteria outbreak, Summer 1997 (Health Ecological and economic Dimensions of Global Change Program. Marine Ecosystems: Emerging Disease as Indicators of Change, Dec. 1998)
  59. Harmful Algae News (The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commision of UNESCO, n18, Jan. 1999)
  60. Marine pollution and coral reefs (Zvy Dubinsky et al., Global Change Biology, v2 p511-526)
  61. Death by suffocation in the Gulf of Mexico (David Malakoff, Science, v281 n5374 p190)
  62. Conservation biology: What killed the monk seals? (John Harwood, Nature, v393 p17-18, 1998)
  63. Did algal toxins cause monk seal mortality? (Mauro Hernandez et al., Nature, v393 p28-29, 1998)
  64. Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary (Andrew N. Cohen et al., Science, v279 n5350 p555)
  65. Mangroves as alien species: the case of Hawaii (James A. Allen, Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, v7 p61-71, 1998)
  66. Bering Sea fish and wildlife affected by combination of environmental changes and human activity (National Research Council, Feb. 21, 1996)
  67. Foiling the zebra mussel (S. Jerrine Nichols, National Wildlife, v36 n3 p10, Apr./May 1998)
  68. Troubled waters in North Pacific (The New York Times, Jan. 13, 1999)
  69. Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems (J.A. Estes et al., Science, v282 n5388 p473)
  70. Coastal marine communities: Trends, and perspectives from human-exclusion experiments (Juan Carlos Castilla, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, v14 n7 p280, Jul. 1999)
  71. Human disturbance and long term changes on a rocky intertidal community (Loana Addessi, Ecological Applications, v4 n4 p786-797, 1994)
  72. Recovery from small-scale anthropogenic disturbances by northern California salt marsh plant assemblages (Stuart K. Allison, Ecological Applications, v5 n3 p693-702, 1995)
  73. Assesment of coastal vulnerabilty to climate change (Richard J.T. Klein et al., Ambio, v28 n2, Mar. 1999)
  74. Climate warming and the decline of zooplankton in the California current (Dean Roemmich, Science, v267 n5202 p1324, Mar. 3, 1995)
  75. Climate-ocean variability and ecosystem response in the Northeast Pacific (John A. McGowan et al., Science, v281 n5374 p210)
  76. Natural resource management in mitigating climate impacts: The example of mangrove restoration in Vietnam (Nguyen Hoang Tri, Global Environmental Change, v8 n1 p49-61, 1998)
  77. Tragedy of Commons??? - Land-based marine pollution (Klaudiusz Wesolek, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/7803/eco.html, May 18, 1997)
  78. Introduction (Commission on Sustainable Development: Fourth Session, http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/iacsd.htm, 1996)
  79. Addendum (Commission on Sustainable Development: Fourth Session, http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/global/environ/latest/00042501.htm, 1996)
  80. Aquatic risk assessment of chemicals: Is it working? (Peter Matthiessen, Environmental Science and Technology, Oct. 1, 1998)
  81. The role of the Ramsar Convention in mangrove management (Peter R. Bacon, Intercoast Network -- Mangrove Edition, Fall 1998)
  82. The reality of the stomach: Coastal management at the local level in Eastern Africa (David Moffat et al., Ambio, v27 n8 p590, Dec. 1998)
  83. Coastal zone management in Eastern Africa including the island states: A review of issues and initiatives (Christine A. Coughanowr et al., Ambio, v24 n7-8, Dec. 1995)
  84. Coastal resource management in Cuba (M. Kyewalyanga, Ambio, v27 n8 p766, Dec. 1998)
  85. SEACAM: Coastal zone management in Eastern Africa has taken a new approach (Custodio Voabil et al., Ambio, v27 n8 p448, Dec. 1998)
  86. The challenge of integrated management (Netcoast, http://www.netcoast.nl/info/coast.htm)
  87. Lessons learned from practicing integrated coastal management in Southeast Asia (Chua Thia-Eng, Ambio, v27 n8, Dec. 1998)
  88. A learning-based approach to coastal management (Stephen B. Olsen et al., Ambio, v27 n8, Dec. 1998)
  89. Using integrated coastal management and economics to conserve coastal tourism resources in Sri Lanka (Alan T. White et al., Ambio, v26 n6 p599, Sep. 1997)

Section III: Coasts and the future

  1. Perception and reality: Assessing priorities for sustainable development in the Niger River Delta (David Moffat and Olof Linden, Ambio, v24 n7-8 p527, Dec. 1995)
  2. Marine resource use and the establishment of a marine park: Mafia Island, Tanzania (Jessica E.C. Andersson et al., Ambio, v24 n7-8 p475, Dec. 1995)
  3. User groups play key role in St. Lucia (Mathias Burt et al., Intercoast Network - Mangrove Edition, Fall 1998)
  4. Key principles towards effective management of coastal and marine resources (Australian Nature Conservancy Agency, Marine Protected Areas and Biosphere Reserves: Towards a New Paradigm, http://www.unesco.org/mab/br/brbullet/br3_05b.htm)
  5. Protected area buzzwords: An attempt to define some current terminology in a more meaningful way (D.J. Brunckhorst, Marine Protected Areas and Biosphere Reserves: Towards a New Paradigm)
  6. A novel approach to identify and select core reserve areas, and to apply UNESCO biosphere reserve principles to the coastal marine realm (D.J. Brunckhorst et al., Marine Protected Areas and Biosphere Reserves: Towards a New Paradigm, http://www.une.edu.au/ecosys/brunck/MAB_PAPR.htm)
  7. What are coastal and marine protected areas supposed to do? (Frank M. Potter, Marine Protected Areas and Biosphere Reserves: Towards a New Paradigm, http://www.ea.gov.au/coasts/mpa/)
  8. The role of monitoring in environmental management (Charles A. Jacoby, Marine Protected Areas and Biosphere Reserves: Towards a New Paradigm, http://www.ea.gov.au/coasts/mpa/)
  9. Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation (Gary Allison et al., Ecological Applications, Jun. 1996)
  10. Chapter 3: Managing coastal areas sustainably (Don Hinrichsen, Coastal Waters of the World, p31-43, 1998)
  11. International experiences in integrated coastal zone management and future outlook (Netcoast, http://www.minvenw.nl/projects/netcoast/experien/experien.)
  12. Private protection of the marine environment, Tanzania: A case study (Thomas Sterner, Ambio, v27 n8 p768, Dec. 1998)
  13. Chapter 18: A future for coastal seas (Don Hinrichsen, Coastal Waters of the World, p225-232)
  14. The restoration of mangrove ecosystems (Colin Field, Intercoast Network- Mangrove Edition, Fall 1998 http://www.ncl.ac.uk/tcmweb/rehab/)
  15. Rationales and practices of mangrove afforestation (Colin Field, Mar. Freshwater Res., v49 p353-358, 1998)
  16. Mangrove restoration: A potential tool for coastal management in tropical developing countries (Ursula Kaly, Ambio, v27 n8, Dec. 1998)
  17. Developing procedures for the sustainable use of mangrove systems (Tom Franks et al., Agricultural Water Management, v40 p56-64, 1999)
  18. European marine protection agreement aims for zero discharges (ENDS Environment Daily, http://www.ends.co.uk)

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[Background sources: climate] [Background sources: coral reefs]