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INTRODUCTION

FOREWORD
Peter H. Raven

PART 1: OVERVIEW

PART 2: ATLAS
PART 3: CASE STUDIES
PART 4: ISSUES
Sources
Background sources
   Agriculture
   Biodiversity
   Climate
   Coasts
   Coral
   Drylands
   Energy
   Fisheries
   Forests
   Freshwater
   Mountains
   Oceans
   Population
   Urbanization
   Wetlands

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BACKGROUND SOURCES

Coral Reefs

Section I: Coral reefs

  1. Reefs at Risk (Dirk Bryant, Lauretta Burke, Dr John William McManus, Mark Spalding, World Resources Institute, 1998)
  2. Coral reefs: Assessing the threat (Leslie Roberts (ed.), World Resources : A Guide
    to the Global Environment 1998-99, p193)
  3. Coral reefs (V.H. Heywood (ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment, p381, 1995)
  4. Reefs at risk (Australian Institute of Marine Science, http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/project-net/reefs-at-risk/apnet-rar00.html)
  5. Evolution and zoogeography of coral reefs (Yair Achituv and Zvy Dubinsky in David W. Goodall and Zvy Dubinsky (eds), Coral Reefs: Ecosystems of the World 25, p19, 1990)
  6. Irradiance and corals (Paul G. Falkowski, Paul L. Jokiel, and Robert A. Kinzie III, in David W. Goodall and Zvy Dubinsky (eds), Coral Reefs: Ecosystems of the World 25, p89, 1990)
  7. The role of symbiotic algae in carbon and energy flux in reef corals (L. Muscatine in David W. Goodall and Zvy Dubinsky (eds), Coral Reefs: Ecosystems of the World 25, p75, 1990)
  8. Coral reef algae (Tamar Berner in David W. Goodall and Zvy Dubinsky (eds), Coral Reefs: Ecosystems of the World 25, p253-261, 1990)
  9. Aspect of trophic relations, productivity and energy balance in coral reef ecosystems (YU.I. Sorokin in David W. Goodall and Zvy Dubinsky (eds), Coral Reefs: Ecosystems of the World 25, p401, 1990)
  10. Sex, symbiosis and coral reef communities (Robert A. Kinzie, American Zoologist, v39 n1 p80-91, Feb. 1999)
  11. Coral reefs: Recruitment in space and time (Peter F. Sale, Nature, p25-27, Jan. 1999)
  12. Threats to reefs (WRI Coastal and Marine Resources, http://www.wri.org/wri/indictrs/threatrr.htm)
  13. Coral reefs in crisis (Don Hinrichsen, Bioscience, v47 n9 p554-558, Oct. 1997)
  14. Integration of local and regional perspectives on the species richness of coral assemblages (Ronald H.Karlson, American Zoologist, v39 p104-112, 1999)
  15. State of the Reefs: Regional and Global Perspectives (Stephen C. Jameson, John W. McManus and Mark D. Spalding, International Coral Reef Initiative Executive Secretariat Background paper, May 1995, http://www.ogp.noaa.gov/misc/coral/sor/)
  16. New estimates of global and regional coral reef areas (M.D. Spalding and A.M. Grenfell, Coral Reefs, v16 p225-230, 1997)

Section II: Coral reefs and human population

  1. Impacts of fishing on tropical reef ecosystems (Simon Jennings, Ambio, v25 n1, Feb. 1996)
  2. Effects of fishing on the ecosystem structure of coral reefs (Callum M. Roberts, Conservation Biology, v8 n5 p988-995, 1995)
  3. Equivalence in yield from marine reserves and traditional fisheries management (Alan Hastings and Louis. W. Botsford, Science, v284 n5419 p1537)
  4. Marine reserves: They enhance fisheries, reduce conflict, and protect resources (James A. Bohnsack, Oceanus, p63, Fall 1993)
  5. Symbiosis, fisheries and economic development on coral reefs (Charles Birkeland, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, v12 n9, Sep. 1997)
  6. Sullied Seas: Strategies for Combating Cyanide Fishing in Southeast Asia and Beyond (Charles Victor Barber and Vaughan R. Pratt, World Resources Institute, 1997)
  7. Fishery recovery in a coral reef marine park and its effect on the adjacent fishery (T.R. McClanahan and B. Kaunda Arara, Conservation Biology, v10 n4 p1187-1199, 1999)
  8. The Bermuda fisheries: A tragedy of the commons averted? (James N. Bulter et al., Environment, Jan. 1993)
  9. Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia (L. Wantiez et al., Coral Reefs, v16 p215-224, 1997)
  10. The effects of marine parks and fishing on coral reefs of Northern Tanzania (F.R. McClanahan et al., Biological Conservation, v89 p161-182, 1999)
  11. White pox (Science v272 n5295 p2017)
  12. Rapid wasting disease: Pathogen or predator? (Andrew Bruckner and Robin Bruckner, Science, v279 n5339 p2019)
  13. Coral disease (James M. Cervino et al., Science, v280 n5363 p499-500, 1998)
  14. Mass spawning by green algae on coral reefs (Kenneth E. Clifton, Science, v275 n5303 p116)
  15. Coral reefs: Present problems and future concerns resulting from anthropogenic disturbance (Robert H. Richmond, American Zoologist, v33 p524-536, 1993)
  16. How coral reefs respond to stress (AIMS Research in Status of the Worlds Coral Reefs, Executive Summary, http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/reefs/wcr-status/wcr-01.html)
  17. Natural and anthropogenic disturbance on coral reefs (Richard W. Grigg and Steven J. Dollar in David W. Goodall and Zvy Dubinsky (eds), Coral Reefs: Ecosystems of the World 25, p439-451, 1990)
  18. Disturbance and recovery of coral assemblages (J.H. Connell, Coral Reefs v16(S) p101-113, 1997)
  19. Coral reefs of Sri Lanka: Human disturbance and management issues (Arjan Rajasuirya et al., Ambio v24 n7, Dec. 8, 1995)
  20. Indonesian coral reefs: An economic analysis of a precious but threatened resource (Herman Cesar et al., Ambio v26 n6, Sep. 1997)
  21. Reefs since Columbus (J.B.C. Jackson, Coral Reefs, v16(S) p23-32, 1997)
  22. Estimates of coastal populations (Joel E. Cohen et al., Science, v278 n5341 p1209c)
  23. Brighter prospects for the world's coral reefs? (Elizabeth Pennisi, Science, v277 n5325 p491)
  24. Hidden holocaust on the reef (People and the Planet, v6 n2, http://www.oneworld.org/patp/vol6_2/pressrelease.html)
  25. Global Climate Change and Coral Reefs: Implications for People and Reefs (Clive R. Wilkinson and Robert W. Buddemeier, 1994)
  26. The 1997-1998 mass bleaching event around the world (AIMS Research, http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/coral-bleaching/1997-98-mbe/mbe-00.html)
  27. Coral Reefs and Global Change: Adaptation, Acclimation, or Extinction? (AIMS symposium and workshop report, Overview, http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/coral-bleaching/global-change/global-change-00.html)
  28. Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs (Joan A. Kleypas et al., Science, v284 n5411 p118)
  29. Coral bleaching: Causes and consequences (B.E. Brown, Coral Reefs v16(S) p129-138, 1997)
  30. Landscape ecology of algal symbionts creates variation in episodes of coral bleaching (Rob Rowan et al., Nature, v388 p265-269, Jul. 17, 1997)
  31. Coral adaptation and acclimatization: A most ingenious paradox (Robert W. Buddemeier and Stephen V. Smith, American Zoologist, v29 n1 p1-9, Feb. 1999)
  32. Coral community adaptability to environmental change at the scales of regions, reefs and reef zones (Terence J. Done, American Zoologist, v39 p66-79, 1999)
  33. The physiological mechanisms of acclimatization in tropical reef corals (Ruth D. Gates et al., American Zoologist, v39 p30-43, 1999)
  34. Paradise threatened: Land use and erosion on St. John, US Virgin Islands (Lee H. MacDonald et al., Environmental Management, v21 n6 p851-863, 1997)
  35. Coralline algae, important coral reef builders threatened by pollution (Mats Bjork et al., Ambio, v24 n7-8 p502-505, 1995)
  36. Coral reefs in Saudi Arabia: 3.5 years after the Gulf War oil spill (H.P. Vogt, Coral Reef, v14 n4 p271-273, 1995)
  37. Pollution and climate change threaten world's coral reefs, says scientist, State Department (Ocean Update, n5, 1999, http://www.seaweb.org/resources/archives.html)
  38. Estimating the carrying capacity of coral reefs for scuba diving (Julie P. Hawkins and Callum M. Roberts, Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Sym, v2 p1923-1926, 1997)
  39. Effectiveness of coral protection programmes in the Ras Mohammed National Park, Egyptian Red Sea (Rupert Ormond et al., Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Sym, v2 p1931-1936, 1997)
  40. Effect of briefings on rates of damage to corals by scuba divers (D. Medio et al., Biological Conservation, v79 p91-95, 1997)
  41. The effect of visitor use on the hard coral communities of the Kisite Marine Park, Kenya (N.A. Muthiga and T.R. McClanahan, Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Sym, v2 p1879-1882, 1997)
  42. Recreational diving and its impact in marine protected areas in Eastern Australia (Vicki J. Harriott et al., Ambio, v26 n3 p173-179, 1997)
  43. Marine bioprospecting
    for the National Cancer Institute (Coral Reef Research Foundation in Palau, Reef Research, http://www.reefnet.org/issue7/research7.html)
  44. Maldives on the beach (The Economist, Jan. 9, 1999)
  45. The International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI): Global priorities for the conservation and management of coral reefs and the need for partnerships (I.J. Dight and L.M. Shert, Coral Reefs, v16(S) p139-147, 1997)
  46. International Coral Reef Initiative Report to the UNCSD (http://www.nos.noaa.gov/icri/csd/i.html)
  47. Oceans and the Law of the Sea: Overview (Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea)

Section III: Future trends and coral reefs

  1. Coral reefs and environmental change: Adaptation to what? (A. Barrie Pittock, American Zoologist, v39 p10-39)
  2. Global change and coral reef ecosystems (S.V. Smith and R.W. Buddemeir, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. v23 p89-118, 1992)
  3. Capacity building for science and management in Belize: Towards sustainable reef management (S.M. Wells, Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Sym, v2 p1991-1994, 1997)
  4. Is ecotourism sustainable? (Geoffrey Wall, Environmental Management, v21 n4 p483-491, 1997)
  5. Environmental limits to coral reef development: Where do we draw the line? (Joan A. Kleypas, American Zoologist, v39 p146-159, 1999)
  6. Do artificial reefs increase regional fish production? A review of existing data (Gary D. Grossman, Fisheries, p17-23, Apr. 1997)
  7. Artificial reefs: The importance of comparisons with natural reefs (Mark H. Carr, Fisheries, v22 n4 p28-33, Apr. 1997)
  8. Coral transplantation using unattached fragments and cultured colonies (Austin Bowden Kerby, Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Sym, v2 p2063-2068, 1997)
  9. Advance in environmental mooring technology (J.C. Halas, Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Sym, v2 p1995, 1997)
  10. Connectivity and management of Caribbean coral reefs (Callum M. Roberts, Science, v278 n5342 p1454)
  11. Episodic fluctuations in larval supply (Paul A. Dixon, Science, v283 n5407 p1528)
  12. Development of a marine protected area: Mafia Island, Tanzania (J. Christopher Horrill, William R.T. Darwall, and Magnus Ngolle, Ambio, v25 n1, Feb. 1996)
  13. Marine protected areas and biosphere reserves: 'Towards a new paradigm' (F. Talbot in Marine Protected Areas and Biosphere Reserves: 'Towards a New Paradigm', Australian Nature Conservation Agency, http://www.ea.gov.au/coasts/mpa/nrsmpa/paradigm/talbot.html)
  14. A framework for the contribution of the science to effective coral reef management (Stephen Bloye Olsen, Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Sym, v2 p1973-1976, 1997)
  15. Coral reef management (Wendy Craik, Richard Kenchington, and Graeme Kelleher in David W. Goodall and Zvy Dubinsky (eds), Coral Reefs: Ecosystems of the World 25, p453-467, 1990)
  16. Tropical marine fisheries and the future of coral reefs: A brief review with emphasis on Southeast Asia (J.W. McManus, Coral Reefs, v16(S) p121-127, 1997)
  17. Ecological criteria for evaluating coral reefs and their implications for managers and researchers (T.J. Done, Coral Reefs, v14 n4 p183, 1995)
  18. Marine protected areas and biosphere reserves (the role of monitoring in environmental management) (Charles A. Jacoby, in Marine Protected Areas and Biosphere Reserves: 'Towards a New Paradigm', Australian Nature Conservation Agency, http://www.ea.gov.au/coasts/mpa/nrsmpa/paradigm/jacoby.html)
  19. Key principles towards effective management of coastal and marine resources (Marine Protected Areas and Biosphere Reserves: 'Towards a New Paradigm', Australian Nature Conservation Agency, http://www.ea.gov.au/coasts/mpa/nrsmpa/paradigm/)
  20. Expanding the horizon(s) of marine conservation: The challenge of integrated coastal management (Ian Dutton, in Marine Protected Areas and Biosphere Reserves: 'Towards a New Paradigm', Australian Nature Conservation Agency, http://www.ea.gov.au/coasts/mpa/nrsmpa/paradigm/dutton.html)
  21. Reef management in developing countries: A case study in the Philippines (E.D. Gomez, Coral Reefs, n16(S) p3-8, 1997)
  22. Using integrated coastal management and economics to conserve coastal tourism resources in Sri Lanka (Alan T. White et al., Ambio, v26 n6 p335-344, 1997)
  23. Community based whole watershed and coastal zone management in Jamaica (T.J. Goreau et al. Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Sym, v2 p2093-2096, 1997)

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