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INTRODUCTION

FOREWORD
Peter H. Raven

PART 1: OVERVIEW

PART 2: ATLAS
PART 3: CASE STUDIES
PART 4: ISSUES
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BACKGROUND SOURCES

Agriculture

Section I: Introduction to agriculture

  1. Index of per capita food production (Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, http://www.wri.org/wri/enved/)
  2. Cereal yield per hectare (Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, http://www.wri.org/wri/enved/)
  3. International trade in food (Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, http://www.who.int/fsf/mbriskassess/studycourse/)
  4. Soil limits agriculture (FAO FactFile, http://www.fao.org/News/FACTFILE/IMG/FF9713-e.pdf)
  5. Low-income food-deficit countries (FAO FactFile, http://www.fao.org/focus/e/SpeclPr/SPro14-e.htm)
  6. Distribution of GDP by sector (World Tables, World Bank, http://www.igc.org/wri/enved/)
  7. Areas of concern for soil degradation (http://www.wri.org/wri/enved/ 1990)
  8. Causes of soil degradation (http://www.wri.org/wri/enved/)
  9. Cropland per capita (Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, http://www.wri.org/wri/enved/)
  10. FAOSTAT agriculture data (http://apps.fao.org/cgi-bin/nph-db.pl?subset=agriculture)
  11. Food and agricultural production, 1984-96 (tables) (WRI, World Resources 1998-99, p284, 1998)
  12. The World Food Situation Recent Developments, Emerging Issues, and Long-term Prospects (Per Pinstrup-Anderson et al., International Food Policy Research Institute, Dec. 1997)
  13. Feeding the world (WRI, World Resources 1998-99, p152, 1998)
  14. Intensification of agriculture (WRI, World Resources 1998-99, http://www.igc.org/wri/wr-98-99/002-agri.htm)
  15. Feast and famine (The Economist, Nov. 16, 1996)
  16. Loaves and fishes (The Economist, Mar. 21, 1998)
  17. Constraints on the expansion of food supply (Henry W. Kendall and David Pimentel, Ambio, v23 n3 p198, May 1994)
  18. Global and local implications of biotechnology and climate change for future food supplies (Robert E. Evenson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, v96 n11 p5921-5928, May 25, 1999)
  19. Feeding nine billion (Lester R. Brown, State of the World 1999)
  20. Soybean harvest down (Lester R. Brown et al., Vital Signs, 1999)
  21. The hunger trap (World Food Programme, 1998)
  22. The State of Food and Agriculture 1998 (FAO, http://www.fao.org/docrep/w9500e/w9500e12.htm)
  23. Global hunger: The methodologies underlying
    the official estimates (Thomas T. Poleman, Population and Environment, v17 n6 p545-569, Jul. 1996)
  24. Extracts from the OECD Agriculture Outlook 1999-2004 (OECD, http://www.oecd.org/agr/, 1999)
  25. Feeding a world population of more than eight billion people: A challenge to science (review) (Dennis R. Keeney, Soil Science v164 n2 p19, Feb. 1999)
  26. The nature of agricultural systems: Food security and environmental balance (K.G. Cassman and R.R. Harwood, Food Policy, v20 n5 p49, 1995)
  27. Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties (P.A. Watson et al., Science, v277 n5325 p504)
  28. An ecoregional perspective on malnutrition (Manohar Sharma et al., http://www.ifpri.cgiar.org/2020/newslet/nv_0495/nv_0495d.htm)
  29. Long-term agroecosystem experiments assessing agricultural sustainability and global change (Paul E. Rasmussen et al., Science, v282 n5390 p893)
  30. Landscape structure and biological control in agroecosystems (Carsten Theis and Teja Tscharntke, Science, v285 n5429 p893, Aug. 6, 1999)
  31. Ecological consequences of slash-and-burn agriculture in the tropical areas of China (Ambio, v25 n3 p210, May 1996)
  32. Agriculture and environment: A review, 1972-1992 (Ambio, v23 n3 p192, May 1994)
  33. Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: The need for sustainable and efficient practices (David Tilman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, v96 n11, May 25, 1999)
  34. Effects of slash and burn agriculture and deforestation on climate change (Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, v58 p13-22, 1996)
  35. Slash and burn agriculture -- household perspectives (Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, v58 p23-38, 1996)
  36. Dynamics of soil physical properties under alternative systems to slash and burn (Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, v58 p39-48, 1996)
  37. Chemical dynamics in slash and burn agriculture (Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, v58 p49-60, 1996)
  38. Soil biological dynamics in slash and burn agriculture (Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, v58 p61-74, 1996)
  39. Development pathways toward sustainable systems following slash and burn (Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, v58 p75-86, 1996)
  40. Nutrient overload: Unbalancing the global nitrogen cycle (WRI, World Resources 1998-99, p179, 1998)
  41. Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: Causes and consequences (Ecological Society of America, Issues in Ecology, Spring 1997)
  42. Livestock and nutrient transfer (International Livestock Research Institute, http://www.cgiar.org/ILRI)
  43. Site- and watershed-level assessment of nutrient dynamics under shifting cultivation in eastern Madagascar (J. Brand and J.L. Pfund, Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, v71 p169-183, 1998)
  44. Forests loss linked to soil degradation (Nastasha Bita and Perry Bronwen, Geodate, v9 n2 p8, May 1996)
  45. Forests in a global context (The State of Food and Agriculture, 1997)
  46. Socioeconomic factors and tropical deforestation (Kamaljit Bawa and S. Dayanandan, Nature, v386 n6625 p562-563, Apr. 10, 1997)
  47. Soil degradation (Sara J. Scherr, Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper 27, International Food Policy Research Institute, Feb. 1999)
  48. Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits (David Pimentel et al., Science, v267 n5201 p1117-1123, Feb. 24, 1995)
  49. Soils in torment (Sophie Bourkhari, UNESCO Courier, v52 n1 p10, Jan. 1999)
  50. The adoption of soil conservation technology in El Salvador: Linking productivity and conservation (E. Gustavo Sain, and J. Hector Barreto, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, v51 n4 p313, Jul./Aug. 1996)
  51. Soil degradation from wind erosion in semiarid region of China (Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, v52 n2, 1998)
  52. Heavy metal pollution in soils in China: Status and countermeasures (Chen Huamain et al., Ambio, v28 n2 p130, Mar. 1999)
  53. Livestock-environment interactions (Henning Steinfeld et al., http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5305e/x5305e00.htm)
  54. Livestock to 2020: The next food revolution (Christopher Delgado et al., 2020 Brief 61, Jun. 1999)
  55. Livestock to 2020: The next food revolution (Christopher Delgado et al., Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper 28, May 1999)
  56. Are you ready for a meat revolution (News and Views, http://www.cgiar.org/ifpri/,
    Mar. 1999)
  57. Sacred cows, science and uncertainties (David C.G. Skegg, Nature, v382 n6594 p755-756, Aug. 1996)
  58. Livestock and the environment: Finding a balance (Cees de Haan et al.)
  59. Poultry, women and development: Old ideas,
    new applications and the need for more research (J. Rushton and S.N. Ngongi, http://www.fao.org/docrep/w9980t/w9980T07.htm)

Section II: Agriculture and human population

  1. Fact Sheet: Population and Food (National Wildlife Federation)
  2. Food production, population growth, and the environment (Gretchen Daily et al., Science, v281 n5381 p1291)
  3. Population growth and food production: Recent global and regional trends (Tim Dyson, Population and Development Review, v20 n20, Jun. 1994)
  4. Population pressure
    and the food supply system in the developing world (Population and Development Review, v22 n2, Sep. 1996)
  5. Toward 2020: Conclusions from a roundtable on food and population to 2010 (Nurul Islam, 2020 Vision Synthesis, http://www.cgiar.org/ifpri/, Feb. 1995)
  6. Population reports (v25 n4, Series M n13, Dec. 1997)
  7. Plants and population: Is there time? (Nina V. Fedoroff and Joel E. Cohen, Academy of National Science, v96 n11 p5903-5907, May 25, 1999)
  8. Population, Food, and Nutrition (William Bender and Margaret Smith, Feb. 1997)
  9. Variability and growth
    in grain yields, 1950-94: Does the record point to greater instability? (Rosamond Taylor
    et al., Population and Development Review, v23 n1 p41-58, Mar. 1997)
  10. Population growth and agriculture in poor countries:
    A review of theoretical issues and empirical evidence (Nadia Cuffaro, World Development, v25 n7 p1151-1163, 1997)
  11. How much food will we need in the 21st century? (William H. Bender, Environment, v39 n2, Mar. 1997)
  12. How many people can the Earth feed? (Vaclav Smil, Population and Development Review, v20 n2 p255-292, Jun. 1994)
  13. Keynote addresses food: Nature and culture (Ismail Serageldin and Margaret Visser, Social Research, v66 n1 p103, Spring 1999)
  14. Conserving Land: Population and Sustainable Food Production (Robert Engleman and Pamela LeRoy, 1995)
  15. Raising women's productivity in agriculture (The State of Food and Agriculture, 1997)
  16. Women: The key to food security (Agnes R. Quisumbling et al., Food Policy Statement 21, http://www.cgiar.org/ifpri/, Aug. 1995)
  17. World trends in fertilizer use and projections to 2020 (Balu L. Bumb and Carlos A. Baanante, 2020 Vision Brief 38, http://www.cgiar.org/ifpri/, Oct. 1996)
  18. Global politics of pesticides (Danielle Knight, Americas, v48 p55, Nov. /Dec. 1999)
  19. Clinical evaluation of pesticide exposure and poisonings (Michael O'Malley, The Lancet, v349 n9059 p1161-1166, Apr. 19, 1997)
  20. Policies to promote environmentally sustainable fertilizer use and supply to 2020 (Balu L. Bumb and Carlos A. Baanante, 2020 Vision Brief 40, http://www.cgiar.org/ifpri/,
    Oct. 1996)
  21. Pest management and food production looking to the future (Montague Yudelman et al., http://www.cgiar.org.ifpri/, 1998)
  22. Trends in the types, amounts, and toxicity of pesticides used in Tanzania (Avil J. Mmochi and R. Said Mberek, Ambio, v27 n8, Dec. 1998)
  23. A Review of Impacts to US Agricultural Resources (Richard M. Adams et al., Feb. 1999)
  24. Water and sustainable development international conference (Wulf Klohn and Hans W. Wolter, http://www.fao.org/ag/AGL/AGLW/webpub/PARIS1.htm, Mar. 1998)
  25. New Zealand: The impact of policy reforms on water quantity and quality issues (MAF Policy, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Wellington, http://www.oecd.org/agr/publications/index1.htm, 1998)
  26. Water for food production: Will there be enough in 2025? (Sandra L. Postel, BioScience, v48 n8 p629, Aug. 1998)
  27. The right to food (The World Food Summit and its Follow up, http://www.fao.org/docrep/X2051e/X2051e00.htm)
  28. The right to food, considered on the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/foodrights.htm)
  29. Time to "green" US farm policy (Katherine R. Smith, Issues in Science and Technology, v11 p71-78, Spring 1995)
  30. Perverse subsidies (John Cairns Jr., BioScience, v49 p334-336, Apr. 1999)
  31. Shaping a smarter environmental policy for farming (David E. Ervin, Issues in Science and Technology, p73-81, Summer 1998)
  32. EU faces battle on farm subsidies (Journal of Commerce, Apr. 14, 1999)
  33. Political muscle (sidebar) (Doug McInnis, BEEF, Jul. 1999)
  34. Back door subsidies for US farmers (Farming News, Mar. 12, 1999)
  35. Agriculture, Trade and the Environment: Anticipating the Policy Challenges (excerpts only) (David Ervin, OECD, 1997)
  36. Cuts urged in fishing and farm aid: Trade and environment. Washington urges WTO to be more responsive to ecological concerns (Frances Williams, Financial Times (London), Mar. 16, 1999)
  37. Module 2: FAQs (1) (http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/eol/e/wto02/wto2_71.htm)
  38. Implementation of the Uruguay round reform programme for trade in agriculture (Press Brief, http://www.wto.org/goods/agricult.htm)
  39. Urbanization and agriculture to the year 2020 (News and Views, http://www.cgiar.org/ifpri/, Apr. 1996)
  40. Suburbia consumes California's fruit basket to the world (Daniel B. Wood, Christian Science Monitor, v89 n201 p1, Sep. 11, 1997)
  41. Closing the nutrient loop (Toni Nelson, World Watch, v9 p10-17, Nov./Dec. 1996)
  42. China's water shortage could shake world food security (Lester R. Brown and Brian Halweil, World Watch, v11 n4 p10-21, Jul./Aug. 1998)
  43. Coexistence between people and elephants in
    African savannas (Richard E. Hoare and Johan T. Dutoit, Conservation Biology, v13 n3 p633-639, Jun. 1999)
  44. Supporting women farmers in the green zones of Mozambique (Ruth Ansah Ayisi, SEEDS n17, http://www.popcouncil.org/publications/seeds/seeds17.html)

Section III: The future of agriculture

  1. Plant biotechnology food and feed (Science, v285 n5426 p289-484, Jul. 16, 1999)
  2. Sociopolitical effects
    of new biotechnologies in developing countries (Klaus M. Leisinger, http://www.ifpri.cgiar.org/2020/briefs/number35.htm, Jul. 1996)
  3. Food for thought (The Economist, Jun. 19, 1999)
  4. Mutants on the menu (France Bequette, http://www.unesco.org/courier/1998_09/uk/planete/txt1.htm)
  5. Technological opportunities for sustaining wheat productivity growth toward 2020 (Prabhu L. Pingali and Sanjaya Rajatam, 2020 Vision Brief 51, Jul. 1998)
  6. Food for all (Debbie Mack, New Scientist, Oct. 31, 1998)
  7. What is sustainable agriculture? (Gail Feenstra, http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/concept.htm, Dec. 29, 1998)
  8. The greening of the green revolution (David Tilman, Nature, v396 n6708 p211-212, Nov. 19, 1998)
  9. Chapter 14: Sustainable agriculture and rural development (Progress Report FAO, Agenda 21/14:SARD, http://www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0103sp3.htm, Jun. 1997)
  10. Evaluating the Potential Contribution of Organic Agriculture to Sustainability Goals (FAO, 1998)
  11. Linking Biodiversity and Agriculture: Challenges and Opportunities for Food Security (WRI, 1997)
  12. Saving nature's legacy through better farming (Dennis T. Avery, Issues in Science and Technology, v14 p59-64, Fall 1997)
  13. The potential of agroecology to combat hunger in the developing world (Miguel A. Altieri et al., 2020 Vision Brief 55, Oct. 1998)
  14. Heifer-in-Trust: A Model for Sustainable Livestock Development? (K.A. Afifi Affat)
  15. Biomass, livestock, people and the environment (Andre Speedy, FAO Animal Production and Health Division)
  16. Austria: Organic farming (The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Vienna, Helsinki Seminar on Environment Benefits from Agriculture Country Case Studies, OECD, p37, http:www.oecd.org/agr/publications/index1.htm, 1997)
  17. Rejuvenating agricultural extension through partnership (South Asia Brief)
  18. Growing more food, doing less damage (Mark W. Rosegrant and Robert Livernash, Environment, v38 p6-11, Sep. 1996)
  19. Growing more food, doing less (Lester Brown and Robert S. Chen, Environment, v39 p34-38, Mar. 1997)

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