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INTRODUCTION

FOREWORD
Peter H. Raven

PART 1: OVERVIEW

  Atlas Overview
   

Scale
Theory
Trends
Waste
Status
Response
Endnotes

PART 2: ATLAS
PART 3: CASE STUDIES
PART 4: ISSUES
Sources
Background sources
Contributors
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OVERVIEW

Endnotes

The scale of our presence

  1. Crop and pasture area: FAOSTAT.
  2. Turner (ed.), The Earth as Transformed by Human Action, Cambridge University Press, UK, 1990.
  3. Vitousek et al., Science, 277: 494, 1997.
  4. Moffat, Science, 279: 988, 1998.
  5. WRI, World Resources 1998-99, 1998.
  6. UNEP (Heywood, ed.) Global Biodiversity Assessment, 1995.

The theory of population-environment links

  1. Ehrlich and Holdren, Science, 171: 1212, 1974.
  2. See, for example, Harrison, The Third Revolution, Penguin Books, 1993, and Ness, Population and Strategies for National Sustainable Development, Earthscan, 1997.
  3. Lutz, Population-Development-Environment. Understanding their Interactions in Mauritius, IIASA, 1994.
  4. Meadows, Dennis et al., The Limits to Growth, Potomac Associates, Washington DC, 1972; Meadows, Donella et al., Beyond the Limits, Earthscan Publications, 1992.
  5. Meadows, Dennis et al., The Limits to Growth, Potomac Associates, Washington DC, 1972; Meadows, Donella et al., Beyond the Limits, Earthscan Publications, 1992.
  6. Simon, The Ultimate Resource 2, Princeton University Press, 1996.
  7. Boserup, The Conditions of Agricultural Growth, Allen and Unwin, 1965, expanded and updated in Population and Technology, Blackwell, 1980.
  8. Boserup, The Conditions of Agricultural Growth, Allen and Unwin, 1965, expanded and updated in Population and Technology, Blackwell, 1980.
  9. Tiffen, More People, Less Erosion, John Wiley, 1994.
  10. OECD, Environmental Indicators, 1994; Schulze and Michael, A Conceptual Framework to Support Development and Use of Environmental Information in Decision Making, EPA, Environmental Statistics and Information Division, undated, http://www.epa.gov/indicators/.
  11. Commoner, Chemistry in Britain, 8(2): 52; Hardin, Science, 162: 1243, 1968.

Population and consumption trends

  1. Durand, Historical Estimates of World Population, University of Pennsylvania Population Studies Center, mimeo, 1974; UNPD, World Population Prospects: The 1998 Revision, 1999.
  2. UNPD, World Population Prospects: The 1998 Revision, 1999.
  3. UNPD, Briefing Packet: 1998 Revision World Population Estimates and Projections, 1999.
  4. UNPD, World Population Prospects: The 1998 Revision, 1999.
  5. UNPD, World Population Projections to 2150, 1998.
  6. Bongaarts, Science, 282(5388), 1998.
  7. UNPD, Proceedings of
    Expert Group Meeting on
    Below Replacement Fertility, 1997.
  8. UNPD, World Population Projections to 2150, 1998.
  9. UNHCR, The State of the World’s Refugees: A Humanitarian Agenda, 1998.
  10. UNPD, Urban and Rural Areas 1950-2030 (The 1996 Revision), 1997.
  11. WRI, World Resources 1996-97, 1996
  12. UNHCR, State of the World’s Refugees, 1999.
  13. Zlotnik, Population and Development Review, 24(3): 429,1998.
  14. WHO, The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade: End of Decade Review, 1992.
  15. WHO, The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade: End of Decade Review, 1992.
  16. World Tourism Organization, Tourism 2020, 1998.
  17. UNPD, World Population Prospects: The 1998 Revision, 1999.
  18. UNPD, Population Ageing 1999, ST/ESA/SER.A/179, 1999.
  19. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2000, 2000.
  20. UNESCO, UNESCO Statistical Yearbook, 1998.
  21. World Bank, World Development Report 1998/99, 1999.
  22. MacKellar et al., Population, number of households and global warming, POPNET (Population Network Newsletter), 27: 1, 1994; Lutz, Population-Development-Environment. Understanding their Interactions in Mauritius, IIASA, 1994.
  23. UNPD, Human Development Report 1998, 1998.
  24. Bruce et al., Families in Focus, Population Council, New York, 1995.
  25. MacKellar et al., Population and Global Warming, IIASA, 1997; MacKellar et al., Population and Development Review, 21(4), 1995.
  26. Cohen, How Many People can the Earth Support?, W.W. Norton, 1996.
  27. Cohen, How Many People can the Earth Support?, W.W. Norton, 1996.

Natural resources and wastes

  1. World Energy Council, Survey of Energy Resources 1989 and 1998, 1989 and 1998.
  2. World Bank, World Development Indicators 1999, 1999.
  3. FAOSTAT, June 1999.
  4. FAOSTAT, June 1999.
  5. FAOSTAT, June 1999.
  6. FAOSTAT, June 1999.
  7. FAOSTAT, September 2000.
  8. FAOSTAT, September 2000.
  9. FAOSTAT, September 2000.
  10. FAOSTAT, September 2000.
  11. Brown et al., Vital Signs 1998, Worldwatch Institute, 1998.
  12. FAOSTAT, July 1999.
  13. Smill, How many people can the Earth feed?, Population and Development Review, 20(2): 255, June 1994.
  14. Oldeman et al., World Map of the Status of Human-induced Soil Degradation: An Explanatory Note, GLASOD, Wageningen, Netherlands, 1991.
  15. Scherr, Soil Degradation, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, 1999.
  16. Oldeman, Soil Degradation: A Threat to Food Security? Report 98/01, International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC), Wageningen, Netherlands, 1998.
  17. FAO, Food, Agriculture and Food Security, 1996;
    The State of Food Insecurity
    in the World 1999, 1999.
  18. Ambio,18(2), 1989.
  19. Groundwater data from WRI, World Resources 1998-99, 1998.
  20. Postel, Dividing the Waters, Worldwatch Paper 132, Worldwatch Institute, 1996.
  21. Gardner-Outlaw and Engelman, Sustaining Water, Easing Scarcity: 2nd Update, Population Action International, 1997.
  22. Quoted in Weizsäcker et al., Factor Four, Earthscan, 1997.
  23. WRI, World Resources 1998-99 Database Diskette, 1998.
  24. WRI, World Resources 1998-99 Database Diskette, 1998.
  25. WRI, World Resources 1998-99 Database Diskette, 1998.
  26. Lyons, Chemical Trespass, WWF-UK, 1999.
  27. World Bank, World Development Report 1992, 1992.
  28. Commoner, Chemistry in Britain, 8(2): 52; Commoner, in Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries, proceedings of United Nations expert group meeting, August 1988, ESA/P/WP.110, United Nations, 1989.
  29. OECD, Environmental Indicators, 1998.
  30. Harrison, The Third Revolution, Penguin Books, 1993.

The state of major ecosystems

  1. UNEP (Heywood, ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment, 1995.
  2. UNEP (Heywood, ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment, 1995.
  3. UNEP (Heywood, ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment, 1995.
  4. UNEP (Heywood, ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment, 1995.
  5. UNEP (Heywood, ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment, 1995.
  6. IUCN, 1996 Red List of Threatened Animals, 1997 Red List of Threatened Plants, 1996 and 1997; Oldfield et al., World List of Threatened Trees, World Conservation Press, UK, 1998.
  7. UNEP (Heywood, ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment, 1995.
  8. Conway, Our Planet, 10(5), UNEP, 2000.
  9. UNEP (Heywood, ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment, 1995.
  10. AAAS (Dompka Markham, ed.), Human Population, Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Science and Policy Issues, AAAS, 1996; Cincotta and Engelman, Nature's Place, Population Action International, 2000.
  11. Harrison, The Third Revolution, Penguin Books, 1993. Data from McNeely et al., Conserving the World's Biological Diversity, IUCN, 1990 (habitat loss), and WRI, World Resources 1990-91, 1990 (population density). Countries with large areas of desert were excluded as population density is misleading in these cases. The correlation between loss of original habitat and log population density was r=0.74 (p<=.0001).
  12. WRI, World Resources 1998-99, 1998.
  13. Bryant et al., The Last Frontier Forests, WRI, 1997.
  14. FAO, State of the World’s Forests 1999, 1999.
  15. FAO, State of the World’s Forests 1999, 1999.
  16. FAO, State of the World’s Forests 1999, 1999.
  17. Bryant et al., The Last Frontier Forests, WRI, 1997.
  18. Mather, Geography, 72(1): 1, 1987; Palo and Mery, 18th IUFRO (International Union of Forestry Research Organizations) Congress Report, Ljubljana, 1986.
  19. Data source: World Resources 1994-95 Data Diskettes. The link between population density for 1980 and deforestation rates in 1980-90 was statistically very significant (r=0.52, p < .0001). The probability of this link arising by chance was less than one in 10 000.
  20. Cohen and Vitousek, Science, 278: 1209c.
  21. Bryant et al., Coastlines at Risk, WRI, 1995.
  22. Estimate of reef extent from Spalding and Grenfell, Coral Reefs, 16: 225-230, 1997; Bryant et al., Reefs at Risk, WRI, 1998.
  23. James et al., State of the Reefs, International Coral
    Reef Initiative Executive Secretariat, Background Paper, May 1995.
  24. James et al., State of the Reefs, International Coral
    Reef Initiative Executive Secretariat, Background Paper, May 1995.
  25. FAO, State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 1999, 1999.
  26. FAO, Review of the State of World Fishery Resources, FAO Fisheries Circular No. 920, 1997.
  27. FAOSTAT, July 1999.
  28. Daniel Pauly et al., Science, 279: 860, 1998.
  29. Daniel Pauly et al., Science, 279: 860, 1998.
  30. Lubchenko, The State of the World’s Oceans, 10 Years after Exxon Valdez Symposium, Anchorage, Alaska, March 1999.
  31. UNEP, GESAMP: The State of the Marine Environment, 1990.
  32. Hader et al., in Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1994 Assessment, UNEP, 1994.
  33. FAOSTAT, July 1999.
  34. UNEP, Environmental Data Report 1989-90, 1989.
  35. WMO, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion 1998, 1998.
  36. WRI, World Resources 1998-99, 1998.
  37. IPCC, Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change, IPCC Working Group I, 1995.
  38. Watson et al. (eds.), The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, IPCC, 1997.
  39. Misdorp and Hoozemans, Global Vulnerability Assessment Atlas, Netherlands Ministry of Transport and Water, July 1999.
  40. Harrison, The Third Revolution, Penguin Books, 1993.
  41. Harrison, The Third Revolution, Penguin Books, 1993.
  42. Harrison, Carrying Capacity in Relation to Production and Consumption Patterns, Independent Commission on Population and Quality of Life, Paris, 1994. Data were
    derived from William Pepper et al., Emissions Scenarios for
    the IPCC: An Update, mimeo and data diskette available from William Pepper, fax: +1 703 934 9740.
  43. MacKellar et al., Population and Global Warming, IIASA, 1997.

Policy Responses

  1. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), The State of World Population 1999, 1999.
  2. World Bank, World Development Indicators Data Diskettes, 1999.
  3. Durning, How Much is Enough?, W.W. Norton,1992.
  4. Weizsäcker et al., Factor Four, Earthscan, 1997.
  5. Kurzweil, Your Bionic Future, Scientific American Presents, 1999

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